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Open AccessArticle

Common Carp mef2 Genes: Evolution and Expression

1,2,3,†, 2,†, 3, 2, 1,* and 1,2,*
National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Freshwater Fish Breeding, Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China
College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2019, 10(8), 588;
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
PDF [3541 KB, uploaded 8 August 2019]


The MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) family belongs to the MADS-box superfamily of eukaryotic transcription factors. The vertebrate genes compose four distinct subfamilies designated MEF2A, -B, -C, and -D. There are multiple mef2 genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). So far, the embryonic expression patterns of these genes and the evolution of fish mef2 genes have been barely investigated. In this study, we completed the coding information of C. carpio mef2ca2 and mef2d1 genes via gene cloning and presented two mosaic mef2 sequences as evidence for recombination. We also analyzed the phylogenetic relationship and conserved synteny of mef2 genes and proposed a new evolutionary scenario. In our version, MEF2B and the other three vertebrate subfamilies were generated in parallel from the single last ancestor via two rounds of whole genome duplication events that occurred at the dawn of vertebrates. Moreover, we examined the expression patterns of C. carpio mef2 genes during embryogenesis, by using whole-mount in situ hybridization, and found the notochord to be a new expression site for these genes except for mef2ca1&2. Our results thus provide new insights into the evolution and expression of mef2 genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: MEF2; Cyprinus carpio; evolution; expression; ohnologs MEF2; Cyprinus carpio; evolution; expression; ohnologs

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He, M.; Zhou, D.; Ding, N.-Z.; Teng, C.-B.; Yan, X.-C.; Liang, Y. Common Carp mef2 Genes: Evolution and Expression. Genes 2019, 10, 588.

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