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Open AccessArticle

Distribution of Duffy Phenotypes among Plasmodium vivax Infections in Sudan

Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
Faculty of Laboratory Sciences, University of Sinnar, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Faculty of Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2019, 10(6), 437;
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Malaria Parasites)
Negative Duffy expression on the surface of human red blood cells was believed to be a barrier for Plasmodium vivax infection in most Africans. However, P. vivax has been demonstrated to infect Duffy-negative individuals in several Central and East African countries. In this study, we investigated the distribution of Duffy blood group phenotypes with regard to P. vivax infection and parasitemia in Sudan. Out of 992 microscopic-positive malaria samples, 190 were identified as P. vivax positive infections. Among them, 186 were P. vivax mono-infections and 4 were mixed P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections. A subset of 77 samples was estimated with parasitemia by quantitative real-time PCR. Duffy codons were sequenced from the 190 P. vivax positive samples. We found that the Duffy Fy(a-b+) phenotype was the most prevalent, accounting for 67.9% of all P. vivax infections, while homozygous Duffy-negative Fy(a-b-) accounted for 17.9% of the P. vivax infections. The prevalence of infection in Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b-)were significantly higher than Fy(a-b-) phenotypes (p = 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). A significantly low proportion of P. vivax infection was observed in Duffy negative individuals Fy(a-b-). This study highlights the prevalence of P. vivax in Duffy-negatives in Sudan and indicates low parasitemia among the Duffy-negative individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; malaria; Duffy-negative; parasitemia; demography; Sudan Plasmodium vivax; malaria; Duffy-negative; parasitemia; demography; Sudan
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Albsheer, M.M.; Pestana, K.; Ahmed, S.; Elfaki, M.; Gamil, E.; Ahmed, S.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Musa, A.M.; Lo, E.; Hamid, M.M.A. Distribution of Duffy Phenotypes among Plasmodium vivax Infections in Sudan. Genes 2019, 10, 437.

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