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Genes 2019, 10(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030250

The Role of 3′ to 5′ Reverse RNA Polymerization in tRNA Fidelity and Repair

1
Department of Biochemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for RNA Biology, Ohio State Biochemistry Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic DNA and RNA Programming)
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Abstract

The tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) superfamily includes enzymes that are found in all three domains of life that all share the common ability to catalyze the 3′ to 5′ synthesis of nucleic acids. This catalytic activity, which is the reverse of all other known DNA and RNA polymerases, makes this enzyme family a subject of biological and mechanistic interest. Previous biochemical, structural, and genetic investigations of multiple members of this family have revealed that Thg1 enzymes use the 3′ to 5′ chemistry for multiple reactions in biology. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding the catalytic features and biological functions that have been so far associated with Thg1 and its homologs. Progress toward the exciting possibility of utilizing this unusual protein activity for applications in biotechnology is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reverse polymerization; tRNA editing; tRNA repair; protein engineering; synthetic biology reverse polymerization; tRNA editing; tRNA repair; protein engineering; synthetic biology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chen, A.W.; Jayasinghe, M.I.; Chung, C.Z.; Rao, B.S.; Kenana, R.; Heinemann, I.U.; Jackman, J.E. The Role of 3′ to 5′ Reverse RNA Polymerization in tRNA Fidelity and Repair. Genes 2019, 10, 250.

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