Next Article in Journal
De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Agave H11648 by Illumina Sequencing and Identification of Cellulose Synthase Genes in Agave Species
Next Article in Special Issue
RNA 2′-O-Methylation (Nm) Modification in Human Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Insights into Catalytic and tRNA Recognition Mechanism of the Dual-Specific tRNA Methyltransferase from Thermococcus kodakarensis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epitranscriptomic Signatures in lncRNAs and Their Possible Roles in Cancer
Open AccessReview

Eukaryotic 5-methylcytosine (m5C) RNA Methyltransferases: Mechanisms, Cellular Functions, and Links to Disease

1
Department of Molecular Biology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
2
Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
3
Göttingen Centre for Molecular Biosciences, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020102
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Epitranscriptome in Human Disease)
5-methylcytosine (m5C) is an abundant RNA modification that’s presence is reported in a wide variety of RNA species, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and a number of non-coding RNAs. In eukaryotes, C5 methylation of RNA cytosines is catalyzed by enzymes of the NOL1/NOP2/SUN domain (NSUN) family, as well as the DNA methyltransferase homologue DNMT2. In recent years, substrate RNAs and modification target nucleotides for each of these methyltransferases have been identified, and structural and biochemical analyses have provided the first insights into how each of these enzymes achieves target specificity. Functional characterizations of these proteins and the modifications they install have revealed important roles in diverse aspects of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. Importantly, this knowledge has enabled a better understanding of the molecular basis of a number of diseases caused by mutations in the genes encoding m5C methyltransferases or changes in the expression level of these enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA methyltransferase; RNA modification; epitranscriptome; 5-methylcytosine; mitochondria; ribosome; transfer RNA (tRNA); messenger RNA (mRNA); gene expression RNA methyltransferase; RNA modification; epitranscriptome; 5-methylcytosine; mitochondria; ribosome; transfer RNA (tRNA); messenger RNA (mRNA); gene expression
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bohnsack, K.E.; Höbartner, C.; Bohnsack, M.T. Eukaryotic 5-methylcytosine (m5C) RNA Methyltransferases: Mechanisms, Cellular Functions, and Links to Disease. Genes 2019, 10, 102.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop