Next Article in Journal
Leishmania Mitochondrial Genomes: Maxicircle Structure and Heterogeneity of Minicircles
Previous Article in Journal
Overexpression of a Novel Cytochrome P450 Promotes Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Transcriptomic Analysis of Porcine Granulosa Cells Overexpressing Retinol Binding Protein 4
Open AccessArticle

Evidence for Early European Neolithic Dog Dispersal: New Data on Southeastern European Subfossil Dogs from the Prehistoric and Antiquity Ages

1
Department of Animal Diversity and Resources, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Department of Structure and Function of Chromatin, Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria
3
Palaeontology and Mineralogy Department, National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(10), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10100757
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Domestication Genetics)
The history of dog domestication is still under debate, but it is doubtless the process of an ancient partnership between dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans. Although data on ancient DNA for dog diversity are still incomplete, it is clear that several regional dog populations had formed in Eurasia up to the Holocene. During the Neolithic Revolution and the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer societies, followed by civilization changes in the Antiquity period, the dog population structure also changed. This process was due to replacement with newly formed dog populations. In this study, we present for the first time mitochondrial data of ancient dog remains from the Early Neolithic (8000 years before present (BP)) to Late Antiquity (up to 3th century AD) from southeastern Europe (the Balkans). A total of 16 samples were analyzed, using the mitochondrial D-loop region (HVR1). The results show the presence of A (70%) and B (25%) clades throughout the Early and Late Neolithic Period. In order to clarify the position of our results within the ancient dog population in Eneolithic Eurasia, we performed phylogenetic analysis with the available genetic data sets. This data showed a similarity of the ancient Bulgarian dogs to Italian (A, B, and C clades) and Iberian (clades A and C) dogs’ populations. A clear border can be seen between southern European genetic dog structure, on the one hand, and on the other hand, central-western (clade C), eastern (clade D) and northern Europe (clades A and C). This corresponds to genetic data for European humans during the same period, without admixture between dog populations. Also, our data have shown the presence of clade B in ancient Eurasia. This is not unexpected, as the B haplogroup is widely distributed in extant Balkan dogs and wolves. The presence of this clade both in dogs and in wolves on the Balkans may be explained with hybridization events before the Neolithic period. The spreading of this clade across Europe, together with the A clade, is related to the possible dissemination of newly formed dog breeds from Ancient Greece, Thrace, and the Roman Empire. View Full-Text
Keywords: ancient DNA; population structure; dog; the Balkans ancient DNA; population structure; dog; the Balkans
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Yankova, I.; Marinov, M.; Neov, B.; Petrova, M.; Spassov, N.; Hristov, P.; Radoslavov, G. Evidence for Early European Neolithic Dog Dispersal: New Data on Southeastern European Subfossil Dogs from the Prehistoric and Antiquity Ages. Genes 2019, 10, 757.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop