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Open AccessArticle

Using a Chemical Genetic Screen to Enhance Our Understanding of the Antimicrobial Properties of Gallium against Escherichia coli

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10010034
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Bacterial Metal Resistance)
The diagnostic and therapeutic agent gallium offers multiple clinical and commercial uses including the treatment of cancer and the localization of tumors, among others. Further, this metal has been proven to be an effective antimicrobial agent against a number of microbes. Despite the latter, the fundamental mechanisms of gallium action have yet to be fully identified and understood. To further the development of this antimicrobial, it is imperative that we understand the mechanisms by which gallium interacts with cells. As a result, we screened the Escherichia coli Keio mutant collection as a means of identifying the genes that are implicated in prolonged gallium toxicity or resistance and mapped their biological processes to their respective cellular system. We discovered that the deletion of genes functioning in response to oxidative stress, DNA or iron–sulfur cluster repair, and nucleotide biosynthesis were sensitive to gallium, while Ga resistance comprised of genes involved in iron/siderophore import, amino acid biosynthesis and cell envelope maintenance. Altogether, our explanations of these findings offer further insight into the mechanisms of gallium toxicity and resistance in E. coli. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; gallium; antimicrobial agents; metal toxicity; metal resistance; metal-based antimicrobials Escherichia coli; gallium; antimicrobial agents; metal toxicity; metal resistance; metal-based antimicrobials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gugala, N.; Chatfield-Reed, K.; Turner, R.J.; Chua, G. Using a Chemical Genetic Screen to Enhance Our Understanding of the Antimicrobial Properties of Gallium against Escherichia coli. Genes 2019, 10, 34.

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