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Long Noncoding RNA in Myeloid and Lymphoid Cell Differentiation, Polarization and Function

Mucosal Immunology Lab, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago 60612, IL, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020269
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Immunology)
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) are a class of endogenous, non-protein coding RNAs that are increasingly being associated with various cellular functions and diseases. Yet, despite their ubiquity and abundance, only a minute fraction of these molecules has an assigned function. LncRNAs show tissue-, cell-, and developmental stage-specific expression, and are differentially expressed under physiological or pathological conditions. The role of lncRNAs in the lineage commitment of immune cells and shaping immune responses is becoming evident. Myeloid cells and lymphoid cells are two major classes of immune systems that work in concert to initiate and amplify innate and adaptive immunity in vertebrates. In this review, we provide mechanistic roles of lncRNA through which these noncoding RNAs can directly participate in the differentiation, polarization, and activation of myeloid (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cells) and lymphoid cells (T cells, B cells, and NK cells). While our knowledge on the role of lncRNA in immune cell differentiation and function has improved in the past decade, further studies are required to unravel the biological role of lncRNAs and identify novel mechanisms of lncRNA functions in immune cells. Harnessing the regulatory potential of lncRNAs can provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in treating immune cell related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: long noncoding RNA; myeloid cells; lymphoid cells; immune responses; polarization long noncoding RNA; myeloid cells; lymphoid cells; immune responses; polarization
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Ahmad, I.; Valverde, A.; Ahmad, F.; Naqvi, A.R. Long Noncoding RNA in Myeloid and Lymphoid Cell Differentiation, Polarization and Function. Cells 2020, 9, 269.

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