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Mitochondria and Female Germline Stem Cells—A Mitochondrial DNA Perspective

The Mitochondrial Genetics Group, Robinson Research Institute, School of Medicine, Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences Building, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Cells 2019, 8(8), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080852
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Female Germline Stem Cells)
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Abstract

Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA have important roles to play in development. In primordial germ cells, they progress from small numbers to populate the maturing oocyte with high numbers to support post-fertilization events. These processes take place under the control of significant changes in DNA methylation and other epigenetic modifiers, as well as changes to the DNA methylation status of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial DNA replication factors. Consequently, the differentiating germ cell requires significant synchrony between the two genomes in order to ensure that they are fit for purpose. In this review, I examine these processes in the context of female germline stem cells that are isolated from the ovary and those derived from embryonic stem cells and reprogrammed somatic cells. Although our knowledge is limited in this respect, I provide predictions based on other cellular systems of what is expected and provide insight into how these cells could be used in clinical medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial DNA copy number; female germ cells; egg precursor cells; embryonic stem cells; DNA methylation; mtDNA set point mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial DNA copy number; female germ cells; egg precursor cells; embryonic stem cells; DNA methylation; mtDNA set point
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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St. John, J.C. Mitochondria and Female Germline Stem Cells—A Mitochondrial DNA Perspective. Cells 2019, 8, 852.

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