Next Article in Journal
Roles of JAK2 in Aging, Inflammation, Hematopoiesis and Malignant Transformation
Previous Article in Journal
Mitochondria and Female Germline Stem Cells—A Mitochondrial DNA Perspective
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Exosomes and Their Noncoding RNA Cargo Are Emerging as New Modulators for Diabetes Mellitus

Center for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Translational Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China
School of Basic Medical Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 853;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
PDF [1138 KB, uploaded 8 August 2019]


Diabetes belongs to a group of metabolic disorders characterized by long term high blood glucose levels due to either inadequate production of insulin (Type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or poor response of the recipient cell to insulin (Type 2 diabetes, T2DM). Organ dysfunctions are the main causes of morbidity and mortality due to high glucose levels. Understanding the mechanisms of organ crosstalk may help us improve our basic knowledge and find novel strategies to better treat the disease. Exosomes are part of a newly emerged research area and have attracted a great deal of attention for their capacity to regulate communications between cells. In conditions of diabetes, exosomes play important roles in the pathological processes in both T1DM and T2DM, such as connecting the immune cell response to pancreatic tissue injury, as well as adipocyte stimulation to insulin resistance of skeletal muscle or liver. Furthermore, in recent years, nucleic acids containing exosomes—especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)—have been shown to mainly regulate communications between organs in pathological processes of diabetes, including influencing metabolic signals and insulin signals in target tissues, affecting cell viability, and modulating inflammatory pancreatic cells. Moreover, exosome miRNAs show promise in their use as biomarkers or in treatments for diabetes and diabetic complications. Thus, this paper summarizes the recent work on exosomes related to diabetes as well as the roles of exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs in diabetic pathology and diagnosis in order to help us better understand the exact roles of exosomes in diabetes development. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; miRNA; long noncoding RNA; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes exosomes; miRNA; long noncoding RNA; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, W.; Wang, J. Exosomes and Their Noncoding RNA Cargo Are Emerging as New Modulators for Diabetes Mellitus. Cells 2019, 8, 853.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top