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The Molecular Basis for Remyelination Failure in Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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Cells 2019, 8(8), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080825
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Multiple Sclerosis)
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PDF [322 KB, uploaded 5 August 2019]

Abstract

Myelin sheaths in the central nervous system (CNS) insulate axons and thereby allow saltatory nerve conduction, which is a prerequisite for complex brain function. Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory autoimmune disease of the CNS, leads to the destruction of myelin sheaths and the myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, thus leaving behind demyelinated axons prone to injury and degeneration. Clinically, this process manifests itself in significant neurological symptoms and disability. Resident oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) are present in the adult brain, and can differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes which then remyelinate the demyelinated axons. However, for multiple reasons, in MS the regenerative capacity of these cell populations diminishes significantly over time, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration, which currently remains untreatable. In addition, microglial cells, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, can contribute further to inflammatory and degenerative axonal damage. Here, we review the molecular factors contributing to remyelination failure in MS by inhibiting OPC and NSC differentiation or modulating microglial behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; remyelination; oligodendroglial precursor cells; neural stem cells; microglia multiple sclerosis; remyelination; oligodendroglial precursor cells; neural stem cells; microglia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gruchot, J.; Weyers, V.; Göttle, P.; Förster, M.; Hartung, H.-P.; Küry, P.; Kremer, D. The Molecular Basis for Remyelination Failure in Multiple Sclerosis. Cells 2019, 8, 825.

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