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Review

The Cell Wall Hydrolytic NlpC/P60 Endopeptidases in Mycobacterial Cytokinesis: A Structural Perspective

Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging (IBB), CNR, 80134 Naples, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060609
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Factors and Mechanisms Involved in Cytokinesis)
In preparation for division, bacteria replicate their DNA and segregate the newly formed chromosomes. A division septum then assembles between the chromosomes, and the mother cell splits into two identical daughters due to septum degradation. A major constituent of bacterial septa and of the whole cell wall is peptidoglycan (PGN), an essential cell wall polymer, formed by glycan chains of β−(1-4)-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), cross-linked by short peptide stems. Depending on the amino acid located at the third position of the peptide stem, PGN is classified as either Lys-type or meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type. Hydrolytic enzymes play a crucial role in the degradation of bacterial septa to split the cell wall material shared by adjacent daughter cells to promote their separation. In mycobacteria, a key PGN hydrolase, belonging to the NlpC/P60 endopeptidase family and denoted as RipA, is responsible for the degradation of septa, as the deletion of the gene encoding for this enzyme generates abnormal bacteria with multiple septa. This review provides an update of structural and functional data highlighting the central role of RipA in mycobacterial cytokinesis and the fine regulation of its catalytic activity, which involves multiple molecular partners. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell division; mycobacteria; structure; peptidoglycan; NlpC/P60 endopeptidase; RipA cell division; mycobacteria; structure; peptidoglycan; NlpC/P60 endopeptidase; RipA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Squeglia, F.; Moreira, M.; Ruggiero, A.; Berisio, R. The Cell Wall Hydrolytic NlpC/P60 Endopeptidases in Mycobacterial Cytokinesis: A Structural Perspective. Cells 2019, 8, 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060609

AMA Style

Squeglia F, Moreira M, Ruggiero A, Berisio R. The Cell Wall Hydrolytic NlpC/P60 Endopeptidases in Mycobacterial Cytokinesis: A Structural Perspective. Cells. 2019; 8(6):609. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Squeglia, Flavia, Miguel Moreira, Alessia Ruggiero, and Rita Berisio. 2019. "The Cell Wall Hydrolytic NlpC/P60 Endopeptidases in Mycobacterial Cytokinesis: A Structural Perspective" Cells 8, no. 6: 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060609

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