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Open AccessArticle

Melanin and Neuromelanin Fluorescence Studies Focusing on Parkinson’s Disease and Its Inherent Risk for Melanoma

1
LTB Lasertechnik Berlin GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany
2
Magnosco GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute of Pathology, Department of Neuropathology, University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC) Mainfranken Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
4
Pathology, Leopoldina Krankenhaus GmbH, Gustav-Adolf-Str 8, D-97422 Schweinfurt, Germany
5
Dermatology Practice, 10117 Berlin, Germany
6
Department of Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weißensee, 13088 Berlin, Germany
7
Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Margarete-Hoeppel-Platz 1, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
8
Department and Research Unit of Psychiatry, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Odense C - DK-5000, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060592
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease 2019)
Parkinson’s disease is associated with an increased risk of melanoma (and vice versa). Several hypotheses underline this link, such as pathways affecting both melanin and neuromelanin. For the first time, the fluorescence of melanin and neuromelanin is selectively accessible using a new method of nonlinear spectroscopy, based on a stepwise two-photon excitation. Cutaneous pigmentation and postmortem neuromelanin of Parkinson patients were characterized by fluorescence spectra and compared with controls. Spectral differences could not be documented, implying that there is neither a Parkinson fingerprint in cutaneous melanin spectra nor a melanin-associated fingerprint indicating an increased melanoma risk. Our measurements suggest that Parkinson’s disease occurs without a configuration change of neuromelanin. However, Parkinson patients displayed the same dermatofluorescence spectroscopic fingerprint of a local malignant transformation as controls. This is the first comparative retrospective fluorescence analysis of cutaneous melanin and postmortem neuromelanin based on nonlinear spectroscopy in patients with Parkinson’s disease and controls, and this method is a very suitable diagnostic tool for melanoma screening and early detection in Parkinson patients. Our results suggest a non-pigmentary pathway as the main link between Parkinson’s disease and melanoma, and they do not rule out the melanocortin-1-receptor gene as an additional bridge between both diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; melanin; neuromelanin; dermatofluoroscopy Parkinson’s disease; melanin; neuromelanin; dermatofluoroscopy
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Leupold, D.; Szyc, L.; Stankovic, G.; Strobel, S.; Völker, H.-U.; Fleck, U.; Müller, T.; Scholz, M.; Riederer, P.; Monoranu, C.-M. Melanin and Neuromelanin Fluorescence Studies Focusing on Parkinson’s Disease and Its Inherent Risk for Melanoma. Cells 2019, 8, 592.

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