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Open AccessArticle

Obesity as an Inflammatory Agent Can Cause Cellular Changes in Human Milk due to the Actions of the Adipokines Leptin and Adiponectin

1
Postgraduate Program in Public Health, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Scientific Writing, Department of Morphology and Physiology, Centro Universitário Saúde ABC (FMABC), Santo André, SP 09060-870, Brazil
3
Postgraduate Program in Public Policies and Local Development, School of Sciences of Santa Casa de Misericordia de Vitoria (EMESCAM), Vitória, ES 29045-402, Brazil
4
Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, MT 78600-000, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060519
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue Inflammation)
Adiponectin and leptin play roles in the hunger response, and they can induce the inflammatory process as the initial mechanism of the innate immune response. It is possible for alterations in the levels of these adipokines to compromise the functional activity of human colostrum phagocytes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the effects of adiponectin and leptin on colostrum mononuclear (MN) cells. Colostrum was collected from 80 healthy donors, who were divided into two groups: the control group and the high body mass index (BMI) group. MN cells were used to analyze phagocytosis by flow cytometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular calcium, and apoptosis were assessed by fluorimetry using a microplate reader. Adipokines restored the levels of phagocytosis to the high BMI group (p < 0.05), with a mechanism that is action-dependent on the release of ROS and intracellular calcium. However, adiponectin and leptin simultaneously contributed to better microbicidal activity, thus reflecting an increase in the apoptosis level (p < 0.05) in the high BMI group. Probably, the maintenance of the balance between adiponectin and leptin levels enhances the protection and decreases the indices of neonatal infection in the breastfeeding infants of women with high BMI values. Therefore, policies that support pre-gestational weight control should be encouraged. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiponectin; body mass index; colostrum; leptin; phagocytes; obesity; overweight; oxidative stress adiponectin; body mass index; colostrum; leptin; phagocytes; obesity; overweight; oxidative stress
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Morais, T.C.; de Abreu, L.C.; de Quental, O.B.; Pessoa, R.S.; Fujimori, M.; Daboin, B.E.G.; França, E.L.; Honorio-França, A.C. Obesity as an Inflammatory Agent Can Cause Cellular Changes in Human Milk due to the Actions of the Adipokines Leptin and Adiponectin. Cells 2019, 8, 519.

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