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Advances in Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy in Androgenic Alopecia and Hair Loss: Wnt pathway, Growth-Factor, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Signaling Impact Analysis on Cell Growth and Hair Follicle Development

1
Surgical Science Department, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, University of “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
Institute of Dermatology, F. Policlinico Gemelli IRCSS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050466
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine)
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Abstract

The use of stem cells has been reported to improve hair regrowth in several therapeutic strategies, including reversing the pathological mechanisms, that contribute to hair loss, regeneration of hair follicles, or creating hair using the tissue-engineering approach. Although various promising stem cell approaches are progressing via pre-clinical models to clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell treatments with a one-step procedure offer a quicker result by incorporating an autologous cell source without manipulation, which may be injected by surgeons through a well-established clinical practice. Many authors have concentrated on adipose-derived stromal vascular cells due to their ability to separate into numerous cell genealogies, platelet-rich plasma for its ability to enhance cell multiplication and neo-angiogenesis, as well as human follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the significant improvements in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical investigations, are reviewed. The potential regenerative instruments and functions of various cell populaces in the hair regrowth process are discussed. The addition of Wnt signaling in dermal papilla cells is considered a key factor in stimulating hair growth. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived signaling and growth factors obtained by platelets influence hair growth through cellular proliferation to prolong the anagen phase (FGF-7), induce cell growth (ERK activation), stimulate hair follicle development (β-catenin), and suppress apoptotic cues (Bcl-2 release and Akt activation).
Keywords: stem cell therapy; stem cell hair loss; human follicle stem cells; platelet-rich plasma; hair loss; hair regrowth; PRP hair; stem cells hair stem cell therapy; stem cell hair loss; human follicle stem cells; platelet-rich plasma; hair loss; hair regrowth; PRP hair; stem cells hair
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gentile, P.; Garcovich, S. Advances in Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy in Androgenic Alopecia and Hair Loss: Wnt pathway, Growth-Factor, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Signaling Impact Analysis on Cell Growth and Hair Follicle Development. Cells 2019, 8, 466.

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