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Metabolite-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptors Connect the Diet-Microbiota-Metabolites Axis to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
2
University Center for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, St. Clara Hospital and University Hospital of Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050450
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract

Increasing evidence has indicated that diet and metabolites, including bacteria- and host-derived metabolites, orchestrate host pathophysiology by regulating metabolism, immune system and inflammation. Indeed, autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are associated with the modulation of host response to diets. One crucial mechanism by which the microbiota affects the host is signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) termed metabolite-sensing GPCRs. In the gut, both immune and nonimmune cells express GPCRs and their activation generally provide anti-inflammatory signals through regulation of both the immune system functions and the epithelial integrity. Members of GPCR family serve as a link between microbiota, immune system and intestinal epithelium by which all these components crucially participate to maintain the gut homeostasis. Conversely, impaired GPCR signaling is associated with IBD and other diseases, including hepatic steatosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and asthma. In this review, we first outline the signaling, function, expression and the physiological role of several groups of metabolite-sensing GPCRs. We then discuss recent findings on their role in the regulation of the inflammation, their existing endogenous and synthetic ligands and innovative approaches to therapeutically target inflammatory bowel disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases; metabolites; microbiota; metabolite-sensing G protein-coupled receptors inflammatory bowel diseases; metabolites; microbiota; metabolite-sensing G protein-coupled receptors
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Melhem, H.; Kaya, B.; Ayata, C.K.; Hruz, P.; Niess, J.H. Metabolite-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptors Connect the Diet-Microbiota-Metabolites Axis to Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 450.

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