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Open AccessReview

Current Status of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) in Lung Cancer: Behind RTK Signaling

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
ICVS/3Bs-PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4710-057 Braga/4805-017 Guimarães, Portugal
Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo 14784 400, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 442;
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Health and Disease)
PDF [1522 KB, uploaded 22 May 2019]


Lung cancer is the most deadly neoplasm with the highest incidence in both genders, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the most frequent subtype. Somatic mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are key drivers of NSCLC progression, with EGFR inhibitors being particularly beneficial for patients carrying the so-called “EGFR-sensitizing mutations”. However, patients eventually acquire resistance to these EGFR inhibitors, and a better knowledge of other driven and targetable proteins will allow the design of increasingly accurate drugs against patients’ specific molecular aberrations. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is an important modulator of relevant intracellular signaling pathways, including those controlled by EGFR, such as MAPK. It has been reported that it has metastasis suppressor activity and a prognostic role in several solid tumors, including lung cancer. In the present review, the potential use of RKIP in the clinic as a prognostic biomarker and predictor of therapy response in lung cancer is addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; EGFR; RKIP signaling; prognosis; cancer therapy lung cancer; EGFR; RKIP signaling; prognosis; cancer therapy

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Raquel-Cunha, A.; Cardoso-Carneiro, D.; Reis, R.M.; Martinho, O. Current Status of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) in Lung Cancer: Behind RTK Signaling. Cells 2019, 8, 442.

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