Next Article in Journal
Cardiac Autophagy in Sepsis
Previous Article in Journal
An Early Decrease in Release of Aquaporin-2 in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles After Cisplatin Treatment in Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epigenetically Altered T Cells Contribute to Lupus Flares
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cells 2019, 8(2), 140;

Immune Profiling and Precision Medicine in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 113-8655 Tokyo, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Lupus)
Full-Text   |   PDF [674 KB, uploaded 22 February 2019]   |  


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a wide range of clinical symptoms. Enormous progress has been made in the immunological and genetic understanding of SLE. However, the biology of disease heterogeneity in SLE has remained largely unexplored. Human immune profiling studies, helped by recent technological advances especially in single-cell and “omics” analyses, are now shedding light on the cellular and molecular basis of clinical symptoms and disease flares in individual patients. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping analysis with flow cytometry or mass cytometry are identifying responsible cell subsets and markers characteristic of disease heterogeneity. Transcriptome analysis is discovering molecular networks responsible for disease activity, disease subtype and future relapse. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the immune profiling analysis of SLE patients and discuss how they will be used for future precision medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; immune profiling; single-cell analysis; transcriptome; precision medicine systemic lupus erythematosus; immune profiling; single-cell analysis; transcriptome; precision medicine

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nagafuchi, Y.; Shoda, H.; Fujio, K. Immune Profiling and Precision Medicine in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Cells 2019, 8, 140.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top