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Cells 2019, 8(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020105

Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Target Alpha-Synuclein and Related Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Neurology, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
2
Department of Neurology, St. Josef- Hospital, Katholische Kliniken Ruhrhalbinsel, Contilia Gruppe, 45257 Essen, Germany
3
Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, 37075 Goettingen, Germany
4
Neurodegeneration Research, Protein Research Unit Ruhr (PURE), Ruhr University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [304 KB, uploaded 31 January 2019]

Abstract

The etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is significantly influenced by disease-causing changes in the protein alpha-Synuclein (aSyn). It can trigger and promote intracellular stress and thereby impair the function of dopaminergic neurons. However, these damage mechanisms do not only extend to neuronal cells, but also affect most glial cell populations, such as astroglia and microglia, but also T lymphocytes, which can no longer maintain the homeostatic CNS milieu because they produce neuroinflammatory responses to aSyn pathology. Through precise neuropathological examination, molecular characterization of biomaterials, and the use of PET technology, it has been clearly demonstrated that neuroinflammation is involved in human PD. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of the pathomechanisms that aSyn elicits in models of disease and focus on the affected glial cell and lymphocyte populations and their interaction with pathogenic aSyn species. The interplay between aSyn and glial cells is analyzed both in the basic research setting and in the context of human neuropathology. Ultimately, a strong rationale builds up to therapeutically reduce the burden of pathological aSyn in the CNS. The current antibody-based approaches to lower the amount of aSyn and thereby alleviate neuroinflammatory responses is finally discussed as novel therapeutic strategies for PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; neuroinflammation; alpha-Synuclein; immunotherapy Parkinson’s disease; neuroinflammation; alpha-Synuclein; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zella, M.A.S.; Metzdorf, J.; Ostendorf, F.; Maass, F.; Muhlack, S.; Gold, R.; Haghikia, A.; Tönges, L. Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Target Alpha-Synuclein and Related Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 105.

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