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Open AccessReview

New Challenges of HIV-1 Infection: How HIV-1 Attacks and Resides in the Central Nervous System

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Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago 8910060, Chile
2
Molecular and Cellular Virology Laboratory, Virology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad of Chile, Santiago 8389100, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101245
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 13 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and Host Interaction)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most devastating pandemics in recorded history. The main causal agent of AIDS is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects various cell types of the immune system that express the CD4 receptor on their surfaces. Today, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is the standard treatment for all people with HIV; although it has improved the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH), it cannot eliminate the latent reservoir of the virus. Therefore HIV/AIDS has turned from a fatal disease to a chronic disease requiring lifelong treatment. Despite significant viral load suppression, it has been observed that at least half of patients under cART present HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which have been related to HIV-1 infection and replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanism by which HIV-1 can invade the CNS and how it can generate the effects seen in HAND. This review summarizes the research on HIV-1 and its interaction with the CNS with an emphasis on the generation of HAND, how the virus enters the CNS, the relationship between HIV-1 and cells of the CNS, and the effect of cART on these cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: AIDS; HIV-1; HAND; CNS; cART; CNS cells AIDS; HIV-1; HAND; CNS; cART; CNS cells
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Rojas-Celis, V.; Valiente-Echeverría, F.; Soto-Rifo, R.; Toro-Ascuy, D. New Challenges of HIV-1 Infection: How HIV-1 Attacks and Resides in the Central Nervous System. Cells 2019, 8, 1245.

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