Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), a tyrosine kinase receptor for FGFs, is involved in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis. High activation of FGFR4 is strongly associated with the amplification of its specific ligand FGF19 in many types of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, where it acts as an oncogene driving the cancer development and progression. Currently, the development and therapeutic evaluation of FGFR4-specific inhibitors, such as BLU9931 and H3B-6527, in animal models and cancer patients, are paving the way to suppress hyperactive FGFR4 signaling in cancer. This comprehensive review not only covers the recent discoveries in understanding FGFR4 regulation and function in cancer, but also reveals the therapeutic implications and applications regarding emerging anti-FGFR4 agents. Our aim is to pinpoint the potential of FGFR4 as a therapeutic target and identify new avenues for advancing future research in the field.
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