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NADPH and Mitochondrial Quality Control as Targets for a Circadian-Based Fasting and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
2
Seeds Scientific Performance Research, Spire Institute, Geneva, OH 44041, USA
3
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Jost
Cells 2022, 11(15), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152416
Received: 6 July 2022 / Revised: 1 August 2022 / Accepted: 1 August 2022 / Published: 4 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Cell Biology of Parkinson’s Disease)
Dysfunctional mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The improper selection of mitochondria for mitophagy increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lowers ATP levels. The downstream effects include oxidative damage, failure to maintain proteostasis and ion gradients, and decreased NAD+ and NADPH levels, resulting in insufficient energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. A ketosis-based metabolic therapy that increases the levels of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) may reverse the dysfunctional MQC by partially replacing glucose as an energy source, by stimulating mitophagy, and by decreasing inflammation. Fasting can potentially raise cytoplasmic NADPH levels by increasing the mitochondrial export and cytoplasmic metabolism of ketone body-derived citrate that increases flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). NADPH is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase, and the nitric oxide synthesized can diffuse into the mitochondrial matrix and react with electron transport chain-synthesized superoxide to form peroxynitrite. Excessive superoxide and peroxynitrite production can cause the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) to depolarize the mitochondria and activate PINK1-dependent mitophagy. Both fasting and exercise increase ketogenesis and increase the cellular NAD+/NADH ratio, both of which are beneficial for neuronal metabolism. In addition, both fasting and exercise engage the adaptive cellular stress response signaling pathways that protect neurons against the oxidative and proteotoxic stress implicated in PD. Here, we discuss how intermittent fasting from the evening meal through to the next-day lunch together with morning exercise, when circadian NAD+/NADH is most oxidized, circadian NADP+/NADPH is most reduced, and circadian mitophagy gene expression is high, may slow the progression of PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; mitochondrial quality control; NADPH; DJ-1; PINK1; Parkin; IDH1; metabolic therapy; fasting; exercise; NAD; mitophagy; mitochondrial biogenesis; circadian; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; coffee Parkinson’s disease; mitochondrial quality control; NADPH; DJ-1; PINK1; Parkin; IDH1; metabolic therapy; fasting; exercise; NAD; mitophagy; mitochondrial biogenesis; circadian; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; coffee
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MDPI and ACS Style

Curtis, W.M.; Seeds, W.A.; Mattson, M.P.; Bradshaw, P.C. NADPH and Mitochondrial Quality Control as Targets for a Circadian-Based Fasting and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Cells 2022, 11, 2416. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152416

AMA Style

Curtis WM, Seeds WA, Mattson MP, Bradshaw PC. NADPH and Mitochondrial Quality Control as Targets for a Circadian-Based Fasting and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Cells. 2022; 11(15):2416. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Curtis, William M., William A. Seeds, Mark P. Mattson, and Patrick C. Bradshaw. 2022. "NADPH and Mitochondrial Quality Control as Targets for a Circadian-Based Fasting and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease" Cells 11, no. 15: 2416. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152416

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