Empowered by pixel super-resolution (PSR) and phase retrieval techniques, lensless on-chip microscopy opens up new possibilities for high-throughput biomedical imaging. However, the current PSR phase retrieval approaches are time consuming in terms of both the measurement and reconstruction procedures. In this work, we present a novel computational framework for PSR phase retrieval to address these concerns. Specifically, a sparsity-promoting regularizer is introduced to enhance the well posedness of the nonconvex problem under limited measurements, and Nesterov’s momentum is used to accelerate the iterations. The resulting algorithm, termed accelerated Wirtinger flow (AWF), achieves at least an order of magnitude faster rate of convergence and allows a twofold reduction in the measurement number while maintaining competitive reconstruction quality. Furthermore, we provide general guidance for step size selection based on theoretical analyses, facilitating simple implementation without the need for complicated parameter tuning. The proposed AWF algorithm is compatible with most of the existing lensless on-chip microscopes and could help achieve label-free rapid whole slide imaging of dynamic biological activities at subpixel resolution.
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