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T Cell Immunosenescence in Aging, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1138421, Japan
Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kai Sun and Jae Bum Kim
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2435;
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health - Second Edition)
Although advances in preventive medicine have greatly improved prognosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. This clearly indicates that there remain residual cardiovascular risks that have not been targeted by conventional therapies. The results of multiple animal studies and clinical trials clearly indicate that inflammation is the most important residual risk and a potential target for CVD prevention. The immune cell network is intricately regulated to maintain homeostasis. Ageing associated changes to the immune system occurs in both innate and adaptive immune cells, however T cells are most susceptible to this process. T-cell changes due to thymic degeneration and homeostatic proliferation, metabolic abnormalities, telomere length shortening, and epigenetic changes associated with aging and obesity may not only reduce normal immune function, but also induce inflammatory tendencies, a process referred to as immunosenescence. Since the disruption of biological homeostasis by T cell immunosenescence is closely related to the development and progression of CVD via inflammation, senescent T cells are attracting attention as a new therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss the relationship between CVD and T cell immunosenescence associated with aging and obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; cardiovascular disease; immunosenescence; T cell obesity; cardiovascular disease; immunosenescence; T cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shirakawa, K.; Sano, M. T Cell Immunosenescence in Aging, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease. Cells 2021, 10, 2435.

AMA Style

Shirakawa K, Sano M. T Cell Immunosenescence in Aging, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease. Cells. 2021; 10(9):2435.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shirakawa, Kohsuke, and Motoaki Sano. 2021. "T Cell Immunosenescence in Aging, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease" Cells 10, no. 9: 2435.

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