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Review

Rho-Proteins and Downstream Pathways as Potential Targets in Sepsis and Septic Shock: What Have We Learned from Basic Research

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil
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Academic Editors: Igor Weber and Vedrana Filić
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081844
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rho family of GTPases in Model Organisms and Systems)
Sepsis and septic shock are associated with acute and sustained impairment in the function of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, lungs, liver, and brain, among others. Despite the significant advances in prevention and treatment, sepsis and septic shock sepsis remain global health problems with elevated mortality rates. Rho proteins can interact with a considerable number of targets, directly affecting cellular contractility, actin filament assembly and growing, cell motility and migration, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and actin polymerization, physiological functions that are intensively impaired during inflammatory conditions, such as the one that occurs in sepsis. In the last few decades, Rho proteins and their downstream pathways have been investigated in sepsis-associated experimental models. The most frequently used experimental design included the exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in both in vitro and in vivo approaches, but experiments using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis have also been performed. The findings described in this review indicate that Rho proteins, mainly RhoA and Rac1, are associated with the development of crucial sepsis-associated dysfunction in different systems and cells, including the endothelium, vessels, and heart. Notably, the data found in the literature suggest that either the inhibition or activation of Rho proteins and associated pathways might be desirable in sepsis and septic shock, accordingly with the cellular system evaluated. This review included the main findings, relevance, and limitations of the current knowledge connecting Rho proteins and sepsis-associated experimental models. View Full-Text
Keywords: endotoxemia; endotoxic shock; organ dysfunction; Ras proteins; small GTPases endotoxemia; endotoxic shock; organ dysfunction; Ras proteins; small GTPases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hahmeyer, M.L.d.S.; da Silva-Santos, J.E. Rho-Proteins and Downstream Pathways as Potential Targets in Sepsis and Septic Shock: What Have We Learned from Basic Research. Cells 2021, 10, 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081844

AMA Style

Hahmeyer MLdS, da Silva-Santos JE. Rho-Proteins and Downstream Pathways as Potential Targets in Sepsis and Septic Shock: What Have We Learned from Basic Research. Cells. 2021; 10(8):1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hahmeyer, Maria L.d.S., and José E. da Silva-Santos 2021. "Rho-Proteins and Downstream Pathways as Potential Targets in Sepsis and Septic Shock: What Have We Learned from Basic Research" Cells 10, no. 8: 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081844

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