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Review

RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease

1
Department of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Angiology, Intensive Care, University Medical Center Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
2
DZHK, German Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, 24105 Kiel, Germany
3
Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Igor Weber and Vedrana Filić
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071681
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 3 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rho family of GTPases in Model Organisms and Systems)
Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spiral down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low-level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kilian, L.S.; Frank, D.; Rangrez, A.Y. RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease. Cells 2021, 10, 1681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071681

AMA Style

Kilian LS, Frank D, Rangrez AY. RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease. Cells. 2021; 10(7):1681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071681

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kilian, Lucia S., Derk Frank, and Ashraf Y. Rangrez 2021. "RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease" Cells 10, no. 7: 1681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071681

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