Next Article in Journal
Melatonin Treatment Improves Renal Fibrosis via miR-4516/SIAH3/PINK1 Axis
Next Article in Special Issue
Rho-Proteins and Downstream Pathways as Potential Targets in Sepsis and Septic Shock: What Have We Learned from Basic Research
Previous Article in Journal
Myostatin Deficiency Protects C2C12 Cells from Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting Intrinsic Activation of Apoptosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton via Rho GTPase Signalling in Dictyostelium and Mammalian Cells: A Parallel Slalom

RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease

Department of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Angiology, Intensive Care, University Medical Center Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
DZHK, German Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Igor Weber and Vedrana Filić
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1681;
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 3 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rho family of GTPases in Model Organisms and Systems)
Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spiral down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low-level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kilian, L.S.; Frank, D.; Rangrez, A.Y. RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease. Cells 2021, 10, 1681.

AMA Style

Kilian LS, Frank D, Rangrez AY. RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease. Cells. 2021; 10(7):1681.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kilian, Lucia S., Derk Frank, and Ashraf Y. Rangrez 2021. "RhoA Signaling in Immune Cell Response and Cardiac Disease" Cells 10, no. 7: 1681.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop