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Mechanisms of Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer Cells Supporting Enhanced Growth and Proliferation

1
Cell and Developmental Biology Graduate Program and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kunimasa Ohta
Cells 2021, 10(5), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051056
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathways in Cell Generation and Reprogramming)
Cancer cells alter metabolic processes to sustain their characteristic uncontrolled growth and proliferation. These metabolic alterations include (1) a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis to support the increased need for ATP, (2) increased glutaminolysis for NADPH regeneration, (3) altered flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle for macromolecule generation, (4) increased lipid uptake, lipogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis, (5) upregulation of one-carbon metabolism for the production of ATP, NADH/NADPH, nucleotides, and glutathione, (6) altered amino acid metabolism, (7) metabolism-based regulation of apoptosis, and (8) the utilization of alternative substrates, such as lactate and acetate. Altered metabolic flux in cancer is controlled by tumor-host cell interactions, key oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and other regulatory molecules, including non-coding RNAs. Changes to metabolic pathways in cancer are dynamic, exhibit plasticity, and are often dependent on the type of tumor and the tumor microenvironment, leading in a shift of thought from the Warburg Effect and the “reverse Warburg Effect” to metabolic plasticity. Understanding the complex nature of altered flux through these multiple pathways in cancer cells can support the development of new therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Warburg Effect; cancer; oxidative phosphorylation; aerobic glycolysis; pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism Warburg Effect; cancer; oxidative phosphorylation; aerobic glycolysis; pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schiliro, C.; Firestein, B.L. Mechanisms of Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer Cells Supporting Enhanced Growth and Proliferation. Cells 2021, 10, 1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051056

AMA Style

Schiliro C, Firestein BL. Mechanisms of Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer Cells Supporting Enhanced Growth and Proliferation. Cells. 2021; 10(5):1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schiliro, Chelsea, and Bonnie L. Firestein 2021. "Mechanisms of Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer Cells Supporting Enhanced Growth and Proliferation" Cells 10, no. 5: 1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051056

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