Next Article in Journal
Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4AI: A Potential Novel Target in Neuroblastoma
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Insights into the Thrombotic and Microvascular Injury in Placental Endothelium of Women with Mild or Severe COVID-19
Previous Article in Journal
The Diverse Calpain Family in Trypanosomatidae: Functional Proteins Devoid of Proteolytic Activity?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Significance of NETs Formation in COVID-19
Review

Mechanisms of Coronavirus Nsp1-Mediated Control of Host and Viral Gene Expression

by 1 and 2,3,4,5,6,*
1
Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology, Joint Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
3
Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
4
UTMB Center for Tropical Diseases, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
5
Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
6
Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carolyn Machamer
Cells 2021, 10(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020300
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 2 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Cell Biology of Coronavirus Infection)
Many viruses disrupt host gene expression by degrading host mRNAs and/or manipulating translation activities to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Often, virus-induced suppression of host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral responses, contributes to viral pathogenicity. Accordingly, clarifying the mechanisms of virus-induced disruption of host gene expression is important for understanding virus–host cell interactions and virus pathogenesis. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in the past two decades. All of them encode nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in their genomes. Nsp1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV exhibit common biological functions for inducing endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs and inhibition of host translation, while viral mRNAs evade the nsp1-induced mRNA cleavage. SARS-CoV nsp1 is a major pathogenic determinant for this virus, supporting the notion that a viral protein that suppresses host gene expression can be a virulence factor, and further suggesting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1, which has high amino acid identity with SARS-CoV nsp1, may serve as a major virulence factor. This review summarizes the gene expression suppression functions of nsp1 of CoVs, with a primary focus on SARS-CoV nsp1 and MERS-CoV nsp1. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronaviruses; nsp1; host gene expression suppression; mRNA degradation; translational suppression; virulence factor coronaviruses; nsp1; host gene expression suppression; mRNA degradation; translational suppression; virulence factor
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nakagawa, K.; Makino, S. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Nsp1-Mediated Control of Host and Viral Gene Expression. Cells 2021, 10, 300. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020300

AMA Style

Nakagawa K, Makino S. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Nsp1-Mediated Control of Host and Viral Gene Expression. Cells. 2021; 10(2):300. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakagawa, Keisuke, and Shinji Makino. 2021. "Mechanisms of Coronavirus Nsp1-Mediated Control of Host and Viral Gene Expression" Cells 10, no. 2: 300. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020300

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop