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Article

Leucine-Rich Diet Improved Muscle Function in Cachectic Walker 256 Tumour-Bearing Wistar Rats

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Laboratory of Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-862, SP, Brazil
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Polytech Angers, Biology and Health Systems Department, University of Angers, 49000 Angers, France
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Laboratory of Nerve Regeneration, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-862, SP, Brazil
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School of Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-970, SP, Brazil
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Laboratory of Electrophysiology, Neurobiology and Behaviour—LENC, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-862, SP, Brazil
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Laboratory of Cytochemistry and Immunocytochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-862, SP, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Pennuto and Marco Pirazzini
Cells 2021, 10(12), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123272
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 23 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Mechanisms at a Cellular Level)
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, especially during cancer-induced cachexia. This condition is associated with increased morbidity and poor treatment response, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality in cancer patients. A leucine-rich diet could be used as a coadjutant therapy to prevent muscle atrophy in patients suffering from cancer cachexia. Besides muscle atrophy, muscle function loss is even more important to patient quality of life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of leucine supplementation on whole-body functional/movement properties, as well as some markers of muscle breakdown and inflammatory status. Adult Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four experimental groups. Two groups were fed with a control diet (18% protein): Control (C) and Walker 256 tumour-bearing (W), and two other groups were fed with a leucine-rich diet (18% protein + 3% leucine): Leucine Control (L) and Leucine Walker 256 tumour-bearing (LW). A functional analysis (walking, behaviour, and strength tests) was performed before and after tumour inoculation. Cachexia parameters such as body weight loss, muscle and fat mass, pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and molecular and morphological aspects of skeletal muscle were also determined. As expected, Walker 256 tumour growth led to muscle function decline, cachexia manifestation symptoms, muscle fibre cross-section area reduction, and classical muscle protein degradation pathway activation, with upregulation of FoxO1, MuRF-1, and 20S proteins. On the other hand, despite having no effect on the walking test, inflammation status or muscle oxidative capacity, the leucine-rich diet improved muscle strength and behaviour performance, maintained body weight, fat and muscle mass and decreased some protein degradation markers in Walker 256 tumour-bearing rats. Indeed, a leucine-rich diet alone could not completely revert cachexia but could potentially diminish muscle protein degradation, leading to better muscle functional performance in cancer cachexia. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer cachexia; leucine supplementation; muscle function; protein degradation cancer cachexia; leucine supplementation; muscle function; protein degradation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Viana, L.R.; Chiocchetti, G.d.M.e.; Oroy, L.; Vieira, W.F.; Busanello, E.N.B.; Marques, A.C.; Salgado, C.d.M.; de Oliveira, A.L.R.; Vieira, A.S.; Suarez, P.S.; de Sousa, L.M.; Castelucci, B.G.; Vercesi, A.E.; Consonni, S.R.; Gomes-Marcondes, M.C.C. Leucine-Rich Diet Improved Muscle Function in Cachectic Walker 256 Tumour-Bearing Wistar Rats. Cells 2021, 10, 3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123272

AMA Style

Viana LR, Chiocchetti GdMe, Oroy L, Vieira WF, Busanello ENB, Marques AC, Salgado CdM, de Oliveira ALR, Vieira AS, Suarez PS, de Sousa LM, Castelucci BG, Vercesi AE, Consonni SR, Gomes-Marcondes MCC. Leucine-Rich Diet Improved Muscle Function in Cachectic Walker 256 Tumour-Bearing Wistar Rats. Cells. 2021; 10(12):3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viana, Laís Rosa, Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti, Lucas Oroy, Willians Fernando Vieira, Estela Natacha Brandt Busanello, Ana Carolina Marques, Carla de Moraes Salgado, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, André Schwambach Vieira, Paula Saenz Suarez, Lizandra Maia de Sousa, Bianca Gazieri Castelucci, Anibal Eugenio Vercesi, Sílvio Roberto Consonni, and Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes. 2021. "Leucine-Rich Diet Improved Muscle Function in Cachectic Walker 256 Tumour-Bearing Wistar Rats" Cells 10, no. 12: 3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123272

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