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Article

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analysis of Sequence Variation and Green Plant Regeneration via Anther Culture in Barley

1
Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
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Department of Seed Science and Technology, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
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Department of Plant Biotechnology and Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
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Institute of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Rzeszow, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Avtar K. Handa
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102774
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology)
The process of anther culture involves numerous abiotic stresses required for cellular reprogramming, microspore developmental switch, and plant regeneration. These stresses affect DNA methylation patterns, sequence variation, and the number of green plants regenerated. Recently, in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), mediation analysis linked DNA methylation changes, copper (Cu2+) and silver (Ag+) ion concentrations, sequence variation, β-glucans, green plants, and duration of anther culture (Time). Although several models were used to explain particular aspects of the relationships between these factors, a generalized complex model employing all these types of data was not established. In this study, we combined the previously described partial models into a single complex model using the structural equation modeling approach. Based on the evaluated model, we demonstrated that stress conditions (such as starvation and darkness) influence β-glucans employed by cells for glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Additionally, Cu2+ and Ag+ ions affect DNA methylation and induce sequence variation. Moreover, these ions link DNA methylation with green plants. The structural equation model also showed the role of time in relationships between parameters included in the model and influencing plant regeneration via anther culture. Utilization of structural equation modeling may have both scientific and practical implications, as it demonstrates links between biological phenomena (e.g., culture-induced variation, green plant regeneration and biochemical pathways), and provides opportunities for regulating these phenomena for particular biotechnological purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgenesis; barley; β-glucans; copper ions; DNA methylation; DNA sequence; plant regeneration; silver ions androgenesis; barley; β-glucans; copper ions; DNA methylation; DNA sequence; plant regeneration; silver ions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bednarek, P.T.; Orłowska, R.; Mańkowski, D.R.; Oleszczuk, S.; Zebrowski, J. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analysis of Sequence Variation and Green Plant Regeneration via Anther Culture in Barley. Cells 2021, 10, 2774. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102774

AMA Style

Bednarek PT, Orłowska R, Mańkowski DR, Oleszczuk S, Zebrowski J. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analysis of Sequence Variation and Green Plant Regeneration via Anther Culture in Barley. Cells. 2021; 10(10):2774. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bednarek, Piotr T., Renata Orłowska, Dariusz R. Mańkowski, Sylwia Oleszczuk, and Jacek Zebrowski. 2021. "Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analysis of Sequence Variation and Green Plant Regeneration via Anther Culture in Barley" Cells 10, no. 10: 2774. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102774

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