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Open AccessArticle

Luxury Absorption of Phosphorus Exists in Maize When Intercropping with Legumes or Oilseed Rape—Covering Different Locations and Years

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Crop Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Ecology and Physiology, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
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College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471000, China
4
College of Life Sciences and Technology, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
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College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China
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School of Agriculture, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
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College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
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Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California (UC) Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060314
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
Rational regulation of phosphorus (P) use in the soil–rhizosphere–plant system is challenging in the development of sustainable, intensive, and healthy agriculture. Rational maize (Zea mays L.) based intercropping with legumes/oilseed rape across six experimental sites from 2008 to 2017 proved advantageous over monoculture in terms of both maize biomass production and P uptake. The partial land equivalent ratio (PLER) for P uptake by intercropped maize averaged from 0.58 to 0.92, which was significantly higher than that for biomass production (0.51–0.78), indicating that the advantage of P acquisition by intercropped maize was superior to that of biomass accumulation. It was the excessive accumulation of P in intercropped maize compared to monoculture, especially higher P concentrations in grains that led to the superior P acquisition advantage and luxury absorption of P. P concentrations in maize grains were significantly increased from 1.89–2.91 mg kg−1 in monoculture to 2.09–3.65 mg kg−1, in intercropping, by 8.3%–25.5%. The plant internal P use efficiency of maize was significantly decreased from the initial 411.7–775.7 kg kg−1 in monoculture to 345.7–710.4 kg kg−1 in intercropping by 4.9%–16.0%, and 100 kg maize grain P quantities were significantly increased from 0.25–0.46 kg to 0.27–0.54 kg by 7.0%–17.4%. Rational fertilizer P input maximized maize yields and P use without decreasing the interspecific ecological advantages and harvest indexes of grain yields and P. These findings promoted better understanding of P allocation status within maize plants, and yield and P acquisition advantages through the exploitation of the biological potential of plants for the efficient utilization of P resources in diverse species combinations. View Full-Text
Keywords: intercropping; facilitation; niche complementarity; phosphorus use efficiency; luxury absorption; harvest index intercropping; facilitation; niche complementarity; phosphorus use efficiency; luxury absorption; harvest index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, H.; Wang, L.; Jiao, N.; Mei, P.; Wang, Z.; Lan, Y.; Chen, L.; Ding, H.; Yin, Y.; Kong, W.; Xue, Y.; Guo, X.; Wang, X.; Song, J.; Li, M. Luxury Absorption of Phosphorus Exists in Maize When Intercropping with Legumes or Oilseed Rape—Covering Different Locations and Years. Agronomy 2019, 9, 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060314

AMA Style

Xia H, Wang L, Jiao N, Mei P, Wang Z, Lan Y, Chen L, Ding H, Yin Y, Kong W, Xue Y, Guo X, Wang X, Song J, Li M. Luxury Absorption of Phosphorus Exists in Maize When Intercropping with Legumes or Oilseed Rape—Covering Different Locations and Years. Agronomy. 2019; 9(6):314. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xia, Haiyong; Wang, Lan; Jiao, Nianyuan; Mei, Peipei; Wang, Zhigang; Lan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Ding, Hongbo; Yin, Yulong; Kong, Weilin; Xue, Yanhui; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Song, Jie; Li, Meng. 2019. "Luxury Absorption of Phosphorus Exists in Maize When Intercropping with Legumes or Oilseed Rape—Covering Different Locations and Years" Agronomy 9, no. 6: 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9060314

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