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Open AccessArticle

Integrated Management of Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) with Sheep Grazing and Herbicide

Department of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Weed Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(6), 315;
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Control Methods for Invasive Plants in Agroecosystems)
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most problematic weeds in western United States rangelands and sagebrush steppe. It responds positively to different forms of disturbance, and its management has proven difficult. Herbicide or targeted grazing alone often fail to provide adequate long-term control. Integrating both may afford better control by providing multiple stressors to the weed. We assessed herbicide application, targeted sheep grazing and integrated herbicide and grazing on B. tectorum and the plant community in rangeland in southwestern Montana from 2015 until 2017. Herbicide treatments included spring-applied (May 2015 and 2016) glyphosate, fall-applied (October 2015) glyphosate, imazapic and rimsulfuron, and spring-applied glyphosate plus fall-applied imazapic. Targeted grazing, consisting of four sheep/0.01 ha for a day in 5 m × 20 m plots (all vegetation removed to the ground surface), occurred twice (May 2015 and 2016). While no treatments reduced B. tectorum biomass or seed production, grazing integrated with fall-applied imazapic or rimsulfuron reduced B. tectorum cover from approximately 26% to 14% in 2016 and from 33% to 16% in 2017, compared to ungrazed control plots, and by an even greater amount compared to these herbicides applied without grazing. By 2017, all treatments except spring-applied glyphosate increased total plant cover (excluding B. tectorum) by 8%–12% compared to the control plots, and forbs were generally responsible for this increase. Bromus tectorum management is difficult and our results point to a potential management paradox: Integrating grazing and fall-applied herbicide decreased B. tectorum cover but did not increase native grass cover, while some herbicides without grazing increased native grass cover, but failed to control B. tectorum. Additional research is necessary to determine grazing strategies that will complement herbicide control of B. tectorum while also stimulating native grass recovery, but this initial study demonstrates the potential of integrated management of B. tectorum compared to grazing or herbicide alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: downy brome; integrated weed management; novel ecosystem; restoration; soil disturbance downy brome; integrated weed management; novel ecosystem; restoration; soil disturbance
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Lehnhoff, E.A.; Rew, L.J.; Mangold, J.M.; Seipel, T.; Ragen, D. Integrated Management of Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) with Sheep Grazing and Herbicide. Agronomy 2019, 9, 315.

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