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The Effect of Phosphorus and Root Zone Temperature on Anthocyanin of Red Romaine Lettuce

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
Agriculture and Life Science Research Institute, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Division of Horticulture and Systems Engineering, Program of Horticulture, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(2), 47;
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural and Floricultural Crops)
PDF [512 KB, uploaded 19 February 2019]


In this study, phosphorus (P) strength [(full strength: 1×-P, half strength: 0.5×-P and zero strength: 0×-P)] and root zone temperature (10 and 15 °C RZT) were investigated in red romaine lettuce to determine their effects on anthocyanin content. This experiment was conducted using a deep-flow technique (DFT) hydroponic system in a greenhouse during the winter in Gangwon province in the Korea Republic. The treatments were 1×-P (15 and 10 °C RZT), 0.5×-P (15 and 10 °C RZT) and 0×-P (15 and 10 °C RZT). The results showed that the P (phosphorus), K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) accumulation contents were lower in the 0×-P -treated red romaine lettuce leaves than in the other treatments. The maximum red romaine lettuce yields per plant, leaf number and leaf length were exhibited during the 1×-P at 15 °C RZT treatment. In 0×-P at 10 °C, RZT treatment showed lower leaf color values of L*, b*, chrome, ºh and higher leaf color a* values. Moreover, in the 0×-P treatment at 10 °C RZT, the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll total were the lowest. Anthocyanin content was the highest in the 0×-P treatment, followed by 0.5×-P and 1×-P treatments at both 15 and 10 °C RZT. Regardless of the P intensity treatment, anthocyanin content was higher at 10 °C RZT than at 15 °C RZT. In summary, the 1×-P at 15 °C RZT treatment is the best for red romaine lettuce leaf yield, and the 0×-P at 10 °C RZT treatment is the best for lettuce leaf anthocyanin content. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll; color value; deep-flow; Lactuca sativa; mineral chlorophyll; color value; deep-flow; Lactuca sativa; mineral

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Islam, M.Z.; Lee, Y.-T.; Mele, M.A.; Choi, I.-L.; Kang, H.-M. The Effect of Phosphorus and Root Zone Temperature on Anthocyanin of Red Romaine Lettuce. Agronomy 2019, 9, 47.

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