This paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment conducted in north-eastern (NE) Poland to determine the influence of the autumn application of foliar macronutrient and micronutrient fertilizers (control, one application in BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie) stage 16 (six leaves unfolded)), two applications in BBCH stages 14 (four leaves unfolded), and 16 (six leaves unfolded) on the growth and development of winter oilseed rape plants, nutrient accumulation, overwintering success, yield components, yield, nutritional value (crude fat content, fatty acid concentrations), and feed value (total protein content, concentrations of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber, quantitative and qualitative composition of glucosinolates) of seeds. When applied in BBCH stages 14 and 16, foliar fertilizers stimulated the development of leaf rosettes, increased the accumulation of minerals in aerial rosette parts (N, K, and Mg) and roots (K, Cu, Mn, and Fe), and contributed to the overwintering success of winter oilseed rape plants (by 8–11%). The application of foliar macronutrient and micronutrient fertilizers in autumn increased seed yield (by 0.25 Mg ha−1), contributed to a significant increase in the crude fat content of seeds (by 1.3–7.4 g kg−1 dry matter (DM), increased the content of oleic acid, decreased the concentration of linoleic acid, and increased the content of glucosinolates, mostly the alkenyl fraction with antinutritional properties.
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