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Article

Defining Fertilization Strategies for Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Production Under Sudano-Sahelian Conditions: Options for Late Basal Fertilizer Application

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Centre d’Etude Régional pour l’Amélioration de l’Adaptation à la Sécheresse (CERAAS), BP 3320, Route de Khombole, Thiès, Senegal
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Département de Biologie Végétale, 10 UMI 3189 ESS, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), BP 5005, Dakar, Senegal
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Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA), BP 1163, Lomé, Togo
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AGAP, Univ de Montpellier, MUSE, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro BP 34090, France
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CIRAD, Ampandrianomby, Antananarivo 101, BP 853, Madagascar
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Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), CRA de Saint-Louis, Route de Leybar B.P. 240 Saint-Louis, Senegal
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CIRAD, UMR AGAP, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
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Institut de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agricole (INERA), 01BP 910 Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
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International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), BP320 Bamako, Mali
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(11), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110697
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Soil nutrient deficiency and rainfall variability impair the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench) in Sudano-Sahelian zone. The aim is to study the environmental factors that can determine the effect of fertilizer application on sorghum grain yield and to formulate tailored fertilization strategies according to sorghum varieties (hybrid and open pollinated improved varieties) and environmental context. Field experiments were conducted during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in Nioro du Rip and in Sinthiou Malème (Senegal). In a randomized complete block design arranged in a split-plot with four replications, three factors were tested: sorghum genotype (G: Fadda, Faourou, Soumalemba and Soumba with different cycle lengths), environment (E: irrigation and rainfed, different soil types and fertility levels), and fertilization management (M: five different combinations of application dose and application time) including T1 = no fertilizer applied; T2 (recommended practice, 100%) = 150 kg/ha of NPK (15-15-15) at emergence + 50 Kg/ha of urea (46%) at tillering + 50 kg/ha of urea at stem extension; T3 = 50% T2; T4 (100% delay) = 150 kg/ha of NPK +50 kg/ha of urea at stem extension +50 kg/ha of urea at heading ; T5 = 50% T4. Results showed that: (i) in most environments, stressed plants under late application treatments (T4 and T5) recovered biomass once the fertilizer was applied (ii); grain yield with T5 was higher than with T4 under well-watered conditions (sufficient and well distributed rainfall and eventual complementary irrigations) ; (iii) Fadda, a hybrid, responded differently to fertilization than the other varieties only for biomass production, (iv) late fertilizer application treatment (T4) gave higher grain yield than the recommended practice (T2) in the environment with low yield potential, and (v) long cycle duration genotypes benefited better from late fertilization compared to short cycle duration genotypes. This study showed that under Sudano-Sahelian conditions late fertilization of sorghum can be beneficial to grain yield if the rainy season has a slow start, depending on sorghum genotypes (i.e., cycle length), and on the initial N content of the soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: late fertilization strategies; environmental conditions; sorghum; Sudano-Sahelian zone late fertilization strategies; environmental conditions; sorghum; Sudano-Sahelian zone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ganyo, K.K.; Muller, B.; Ndiaye, M.; Gaglo, E.K.; Guissé, A.; Adam, M. Defining Fertilization Strategies for Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Production Under Sudano-Sahelian Conditions: Options for Late Basal Fertilizer Application. Agronomy 2019, 9, 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110697

AMA Style

Ganyo KK, Muller B, Ndiaye M, Gaglo EK, Guissé A, Adam M. Defining Fertilization Strategies for Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Production Under Sudano-Sahelian Conditions: Options for Late Basal Fertilizer Application. Agronomy. 2019; 9(11):697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110697

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ganyo, Komla K., Bertrand Muller, Malick Ndiaye, Espoir K. Gaglo, Aliou Guissé, and Myriam Adam. 2019. "Defining Fertilization Strategies for Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Production Under Sudano-Sahelian Conditions: Options for Late Basal Fertilizer Application" Agronomy 9, no. 11: 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110697

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