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Agronomy 2018, 8(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8060079

Agrobiodiversity for Adaptive and Yield Traits in Romanian and Italian Barley Cultivars across Four Continental Environments

1
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics CREA-GB, Via San Protaso, 302, 29017 Fiorenzuola d’Arda, PC, Italy
2
National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea, N. Titulescu street, 1, Fundulea, 915200 Calarasi, Romania
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract

Within temperate climates the frequency and severity of high and low temperature stresses vary with continentality. The current study reports on the assessment of the performance of 49 barley cultivars across four environments. The cultivars stem from 50 years of breeding activities in Romania and Italy, in two temperate climates that differ in continentality. The plants were phenotyped through stress monitoring, measurements of yield and yield related traits as well as laboratory stress tolerance tests. Genotypes for alleles of vernalisation and photoperiod genes were determined. These genes were significantly associated with frost damage in the field and frost tolerance in laboratory tests. Grain yield (GY) was more closely correlated with the number of grain sinks than with the degree of grain filling indicating major limitations in the vegetative growth phase and during grain initiation. High temperature stress during the grain filling phase significantly reduced GY. Frost damage due to freezing temperatures below −10 °C when plants were not protected by snow cover significantly reduced GY of sensitive cultivars. The characterisation of environmental cues that cause stresses with yield penalties as well as the susceptibility of genetically different cultivars lay the ground for future targeted selection. View Full-Text
Keywords: breeding; vernalisation; photoperiod; frost; heat stress; phenology; phenotyping; genotyping; climate indicators; genetic diversity breeding; vernalisation; photoperiod; frost; heat stress; phenology; phenotyping; genotyping; climate indicators; genetic diversity
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Rizza, F.; Vasilescu, L.; Badeck, F.-W.; Morcia, C.; Alberici, R.; Bude, A.; Alionte, E.; Petcu, E.; Baronchelli, M.; Faccini, N.; Pagani, D.; Terzi, V. Agrobiodiversity for Adaptive and Yield Traits in Romanian and Italian Barley Cultivars across Four Continental Environments. Agronomy 2018, 8, 79.

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