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Open AccessArticle

Resource Use Efficiencies of C3 and C4 Cereals under Split Nitrogen Regimes

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
PARC, Research and Training Station, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
PMAS, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46300, Pakistan
In-service Agriculture Training Institute, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2018, 8(5), 69;
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Plant Nutrients in Agronomic Crops)
Resources are limited, thus improving resource use efficiency is a key objective for cereal-based cropping systems. This field study was carried out to quantify resource use efficiencies in selected C3 and C4 cereals under split nitrogen (N) application regimes. The study included the following treatments: six cereals (three C3: wheat, oat, and barley; and three C4: maize, millet, and sorghum) and four split N application regimes (NS1 = full amount of N at sowing; NS2 = half N at sowing + half N at first irrigation; NS3 = ⅓ N at sowing + ⅓ N at first irrigation + ⅓ N at second irrigation; NS4 = ¼ N at sowing + ¼ N at first irrigation + ¼ N at second irrigation + ¼ N at third irrigation). Results revealed that C4 cereals out-yielded C3 cereals in terms of biomass production, grain yield, and resource use efficiencies (i.e., radiation use efficiency (RUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)), while splitting N into three applications proved to be a better strategy for all of the selected winter and summer cereals. The results suggest that C4 cereals should be added into existing cereal-based cropping systems and N application done in three installments to boost productivity and higher resource use efficiency to ensure food security for the burgeoning population. View Full-Text
Keywords: barley; maize; millet; oat; radiation use efficiency; sorghum; wheat barley; maize; millet; oat; radiation use efficiency; sorghum; wheat
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Fatima, Z.; Abbas, Q.; Khan, A.; Hussain, S.; Ali, M.A.; Abbas, G.; Younis, H.; Naz, S.; Ismail, M.; Shahzad, M.I.; Nadeem, M.; Farooq, U.; Khan, S.U.; Javed, K.; Khan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.; Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, S. Resource Use Efficiencies of C3 and C4 Cereals under Split Nitrogen Regimes. Agronomy 2018, 8, 69.

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