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Review

Mineral-Ecological Cropping Systems—A New Approach to Improve Ecosystem Services by Farming without Chemical Synthetic Plant Protection

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Farm Management (410b), University of Hohenheim, Schwerzstr. 44, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Biobased Resources in the Bioeconomy (340b), Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Marketing for Food and Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, University of Göttingen, Platz der Göttinger Sieben 5, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
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Production Theory and Resource Economics (410a), University of Hohenheim, Schwerzstr. 44, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Plant Product Quality (340e), University of Hohenheim, Emil Wolff Str. 25, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Landscape and Plant Ecology (320a), University of Hohenheim, Ottilie-Zeller-Weg 2, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)—Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Strategies and Technology Assessment, Stahnsdorfer Damm 81, 14532 Kleinmachnow, Germany
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Phytopathology (360a), Institute of Phytomedicine, University of Hohenheim, Otto-Sander-Str. 5, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Crop Biodiversity and Breeding Informatics (350b), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 21, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Biogeophysics (310d), University of Hohenheim, Emil Wolff Str. 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Nutritional Crop Physiology (340h), Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 20, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Fertilization and Soil Matter Dynamics (340i), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 20, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Soil Biology (310b), Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Technology in Crop Production (440d), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 9, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Cropping Systems and Modelling, Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Weed Science (360b), University of Hohenheim, Otto-Sander-Str. 5, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Hohenheim (400), Schwerzstraße 21, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Institute of Applied Agriculture (IAAF), Nuertingen Geislingen University, Marktstr. 16, 72622 Nürtingen, Germany
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Seed Science and Technology (350d), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 21, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Biostatistics (340c), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Apicultural State Institute, University of Hohenheim, August-von-Hartmann-Str. 13, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Center for Organic Farming (309), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 14-16, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Applied Entomology (360c), University of Hohenheim, Otto-Sander-Str. 5, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jie Zhao
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091710
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social-Ecologically More Sustainable Agricultural Production)
The search for approaches to a holistic sustainable agriculture requires the development of new cropping systems that provide additional ecosystem services beyond biomass supply for food, feed, material, and energy use. The reduction of chemical synthetic plant protection products is a key instrument to protect vulnerable natural resources such as groundwater and biodiversity. Together with an optimal use of mineral fertilizer, agroecological practices, and precision agriculture technologies, a complete elimination of chemical synthetic plant protection in mineral-ecological cropping systems (MECSs) may not only improve the environmental performance of agroecosystems, but also ensure their yield performance. Therefore, the development of MECSs aims to improve the overall ecosystem services of agricultural landscapes by (i) improving the provision of regulating ecosystem services compared to conventional cropping systems and (ii) improving the supply of provisioning ecosystem services compared to organic cropping systems. In the present review, all relevant research levels and aspects of this new farming concept are outlined and discussed based on a comprehensive literature review and the ongoing research project “Agriculture 4.0 without Chemical-Synthetic Plant Protection”. View Full-Text
Keywords: food security; pesticide-free agriculture; biological control; nutrient efficiency; resistance breeding; equidistant seeding; precision farming; life cycle assessment; sustainable intensification; agroecological intensification food security; pesticide-free agriculture; biological control; nutrient efficiency; resistance breeding; equidistant seeding; precision farming; life cycle assessment; sustainable intensification; agroecological intensification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmermann, B.; Claß-Mahler, I.; von Cossel, M.; Lewandowski, I.; Weik, J.; Spiller, A.; Nitzko, S.; Lippert, C.; Krimly, T.; Pergner, I.; Zörb, C.; Wimmer, M.A.; Dier, M.; Schurr, F.M.; Pagel, J.; Riemenschneider, A.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Feike, T.; Klocke, B.; Lieb, R.; Kühne, S.; Krengel-Horney, S.; Gitzel, J.; El-Hasan, A.; Thomas, S.; Rieker, M.; Schmid, K.; Streck, T.; Ingwersen, J.; Ludewig, U.; Neumann, G.; Maywald, N.; Müller, T.; Bradáčová, K.; Göbel, M.; Kandeler, E.; Marhan, S.; Schuster, R.; Griepentrog, H.-W.; Reiser, D.; Stana, A.; Graeff-Hönninger, S.; Munz, S.; Otto, D.; Gerhards, R.; Saile, M.; Hermann, W.; Schwarz, J.; Frank, M.; Kruse, M.; Piepho, H.-P.; Rosenkranz, P.; Wallner, K.; Zikeli, S.; Petschenka, G.; Schönleber, N.; Vögele, R.T.; Bahrs, E. Mineral-Ecological Cropping Systems—A New Approach to Improve Ecosystem Services by Farming without Chemical Synthetic Plant Protection. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091710

AMA Style

Zimmermann B, Claß-Mahler I, von Cossel M, Lewandowski I, Weik J, Spiller A, Nitzko S, Lippert C, Krimly T, Pergner I, Zörb C, Wimmer MA, Dier M, Schurr FM, Pagel J, Riemenschneider A, Kehlenbeck H, Feike T, Klocke B, Lieb R, Kühne S, Krengel-Horney S, Gitzel J, El-Hasan A, Thomas S, Rieker M, Schmid K, Streck T, Ingwersen J, Ludewig U, Neumann G, Maywald N, Müller T, Bradáčová K, Göbel M, Kandeler E, Marhan S, Schuster R, Griepentrog H-W, Reiser D, Stana A, Graeff-Hönninger S, Munz S, Otto D, Gerhards R, Saile M, Hermann W, Schwarz J, Frank M, Kruse M, Piepho H-P, Rosenkranz P, Wallner K, Zikeli S, Petschenka G, Schönleber N, Vögele RT, Bahrs E. Mineral-Ecological Cropping Systems—A New Approach to Improve Ecosystem Services by Farming without Chemical Synthetic Plant Protection. Agronomy. 2021; 11(9):1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmermann, Beate, Ingrid Claß-Mahler, Moritz von Cossel, Iris Lewandowski, Jan Weik, Achim Spiller, Sina Nitzko, Christian Lippert, Tatjana Krimly, Isabell Pergner, Christian Zörb, Monika A. Wimmer, Markus Dier, Frank M. Schurr, Jörn Pagel, Adriana Riemenschneider, Hella Kehlenbeck, Til Feike, Bettina Klocke, Robin Lieb, Stefan Kühne, Sandra Krengel-Horney, Julia Gitzel, Abbas El-Hasan, Stefan Thomas, Martin Rieker, Karl Schmid, Thilo Streck, Joachim Ingwersen, Uwe Ludewig, Günter Neumann, Niels Maywald, Torsten Müller, Klára Bradáčová, Markus Göbel, Ellen Kandeler, Sven Marhan, Romina Schuster, Hans-W. Griepentrog, David Reiser, Alexander Stana, Simone Graeff-Hönninger, Sebastian Munz, Dina Otto, Roland Gerhards, Marcus Saile, Wilfried Hermann, Jürgen Schwarz, Markus Frank, Michael Kruse, Hans-Peter Piepho, Peter Rosenkranz, Klaus Wallner, Sabine Zikeli, Georg Petschenka, Nicole Schönleber, Ralf T. Vögele, and Enno Bahrs. 2021. "Mineral-Ecological Cropping Systems—A New Approach to Improve Ecosystem Services by Farming without Chemical Synthetic Plant Protection" Agronomy 11, no. 9: 1710. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091710

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