# Seed Morphology in Key Spanish Grapevine Cultivars

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Plant Material

#### 2.2. Seed Images

#### 2.3. General Morphological Description by Image Analysis

^{2}, while Roundness is 4A/(πL

^{2}), thus Circularity values decrease with surface irregularities, while Roundness values are insensitive to them.

#### 2.4. Obtention of the New Models

#### 2.4.1. Obtention of an Average Silhouette for Each Cultivar

#### 2.4.2. New Models

#### 2.5. Quantification of Similarity between the Seeds and the Models: J Index

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. New Models

#### 3.2. General Morphological Description and Comparison between the Seeds of Different Groups

^{2}(Sylvestris) and 29.1 mm

^{2}(De Cuerno). The minimum values of perimeter (14.8 mm), length (5.0 mm) and width (3.5 mm) corresponded to the wild varieties (Sylvestris) which had also low aspect ratio values. Listán Prieto was the unique group with higher values of roundness and lower values of aspect ratio than the group containing the sylvestris cultivars.

#### 3.3. Groups of Cultivars for Each of the Models

#### 3.3.1. Listán Prieto Model

#### 3.3.2. Sylvestris Model

#### 3.3.3. Albillo Real Model

#### 3.3.4. Hebén Model

#### 3.3.5. Moscatel Model

#### 3.3.6. Tortozón Model

#### 3.3.7. Teta de Vaca Model

#### 3.3.8. Doña Blanca Model

#### 3.3.9. Airén Model

#### 3.3.10. De Cuerno Model

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Table A1.**List of cultivars of of Vitis vinifera L. used in this work, indicating the origin of the cultivars and their first mention in the literature [6,7,8,22,23,24,25,26]. CA 13.4 and CA 13.6 were obtained from the terrains close to the stream Nateruela in Cadiz. Se 2.1 was obtained in Ribera del Huéznar, Sevilla.

N | Main Name | First Description | Synonyms | Origin | Group |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Airén | [8] | Blancón, Lairén, Manchega, Valdepeñas, | Castilla-La Mancha | Airén |

2 | Alarije | [7] | Aris, Malvasía Riojana, Rojal, Subirat Parent, Torrontés. | Extremadura | Albillo Real |

3 | Albillo Real | [7] | Albillo de Madrid, Albillo de Toro, Temprana. | Castilla y León | Albillo Real |

4 | Beba | [44] | Calop Blanco, Chelva, Lairén, Valencí, Mantua, Uva Rey. | Andalucía | Moscatel |

5 | Bobal | [44] | Moravia, Morenillo, Pansa negra, Provechón. | Valencia | Bobal |

6 | Bruñal | [45] | Albarín Negro, Baboso Negro, Alfrocheiro Preto (Portugal). | Castilla y León | Moscatel |

7 | Caiño Tinto | [46] | Caíño del País, Caíño Gordo, Caíño, Tinta Femia. | Galicia | Moscatel |

8 | Castellana Blanca | [7] | Without synonyms. | Castilla y León | Moscatel |

9 | Cayetana Blanca | [7] | Baladí, Cagazal, Calagraño, Jaén, Robal, Verdoncho. | Andalucía | Albillo Real |

10 | De Cuerno | [8] | Dedos de doncella, Cornichón Blanc, Pizzutelllo bianco. | Andalucía | De Cuerno |

11 | Dominga | [50] | Gloria, Murciana Blanca y Uva Verde de Alhama. | Murcia | Teta de vaca |

12 | Doña Blanca | [7] | Cigüente, Malvasía Castellana, Valenciana. | Extremadura | Airén |

13 | Garnacha Tinta | [44] | Aragonés, Lladoner Negre, Grenache (Francia). | Aragón | Moscatel |

14 | Gewürztraminer | [47] | Savagnin Rosa Aromática (Francia). | Germany | Moscatel |

15 | Graciano | [8] | Morrastel en Francia, Tinta Miuda (Portugal). | La Rioja | Albillo Real |

16 | Hebén | [7,48] | Ben, Evén, Laco Blanco, Panseras, Pansero. | Castilla-La Mancha | Hebén |

17 | Imperial | [40] | Without synonyms. | Unknown | Tortozón |

18 | Juan García | [46] | Negrón de Aldán, Mouratón, Negreda, Tinto Madrid. | Castilla y León | Albillo Real |

19 | Listán Prieto | [7] | Mission (California); País (Chile), Hariri (Morocco). | Castilla-La Mancha | Listán Prieto |

20 | Macabeo | [44] | Blanco de Daroca, Viura. | Aragón | Hebén |

21 | Malvasía Aromática | [7] | Malvasía de Sitges; Malvasía de Lipari (Italy). | Greece | Moscatel |

22 | Mazuela | [44] | Cariñena, Concejón, Samsó, Carignan (France). | Aragón | Bobal |

23 | Mollar Cano | [44] | Mulata Negra, Moll, Negra Moll, Negra Mole (Portugal). | Andalucía | Moscatel |

24 | Monastrell | [44] | Alcayata, Garrut, Mandó, Mourvèdre (Francia). | Valencia | Airén |

25 | Moscatel de Alejandría | [44] | Moscatel de Grano Gordo, Romé, Zibibbo (Italy). | Egypt | Moscatel |

26 | Moscatel de grano menudo | [7] | Moscatel Almizclero, Moscatel Morisco, Moscatel Romano. | Valencia | Moscatel |

27 | Palomino Fino | [51] | Jerezana fina, Listán Blanco, Listán Gacho. | Andalucía | Moscatel |

28 | Pedro Ximénez | [44] | Chironés, Chironet. | Andalucía | Airén |

29 | Prieto Picudo | [52] | Verdejo negro | Castilla y León | Moscatel |

30 | Sylvestris (CA 13.4) | [53] | Without synonyms | Andalucía | Sylvestris |

31 | Sylvestris (CA 13.6) | [53] | Without synonyms | Andalucía | Sylvestris |

32 | Sylvestris (SE 2.1) | [53] | Without synonyms | Andalucía | Sylvestris |

33 | Tempranillo | [7] | Cencibel, Tinta de Toro, Tinta Roriz (Portugal). | La Rioja | Albillo Real |

34 | Teta de vaca | [54] | Royal Gordo, Rojal Gordo, Ahmeur bou Ahmeur. | Egypt | Teta de vaca |

35 | Tortozón | [7] | Prieto Picudo Blanco, Folha de Figuera (Portugal) | Castilla-La Mancha | Tortozón |

36 | Tortozona Tinta | [7] | Without synonyms | Castilla-La Mancha | Listán Prieto |

37 | Verdejo | [45] | Without synonyms | Castilla y León | Teta de vaca |

38 | Zalema | [8] | Mantúo Perruno, Perruna, Torrontés de Montilla. | Andalucía | Hebén |

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**Figure 1.**Seeds of the cultivars Albillo Real (

**left**) and Airén (

**right**) showing the regions observed for modelling. The variable regions are indicated with rectangles and correspond to the upper and lateral edges of the peduncle, and to the curvature at the base. The red lines show the variations in these regions corresponding to a flat peduncle in Albillo Real, in contrast to a rounded top in Airén. The peduncle appears more differentiated from the rest of the seed in Albillo Real, while there is more continuity in Airén. The discontinuity at the base is more pronounced in the Airén seed, on the right.

**Figure 2.**Schematic representation of the method used to obtain J index. J index is the ratio between shared and total area in two images. Left: a seed from the cultivar Albillo Real. Middle: The same seed with the model superimposed; above, with the model in black; and below, the model in white. Right: Red zones show the areas quantified in each of the figures. ImageJ gives the total area for the seed with the model in black, while shared area is obtained with the white model.

**Figure 3.**New models used in the classification of 38 representative cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. maintained in El Encín and the respective average silhouettes of some of the cultivars. The average silhouettes of the varieties that best fitted each model are represented by a gray area, and the models by a continuous line.

**Figure 4.**Listán Prieto Model. From left to right: An image with the sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, average silhouette obtained from the first image, the Listán Prieto model, and four representative seeds of this cultivar. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 5.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Listán Prieto and Tortozona Tinta with the Listán Prieto model.

**Figure 6.**Sylvestris Model. From left to right: An image with the sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds of CA 13.4, average silhouette obtained from the first image, the Sylvestris model, and four representative seeds of CA 13.4. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 7.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars CA 13-4, CA 13-6 and SE 2-1 with the Sylvestris model.

**Figure 8.**Albillo Real. From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds of Albillo Real cultivar, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Albillo Real model, and four representative seeds of this cultivar. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 9.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in the cultivars Alarije, Albillo Real, Graciano, Juan García and Tempranillo with the Albillo Real model.

**Figure 10.**Hebén Model. From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Hebén model, and four representative seeds of this cultivar. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 11.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in the cultivars Hebén, Macabeo and Zalema with the Heben model.

**Figure 12.**Moscatel model. From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds of the cultivar Mollar Cano, average silhouette for this cultivar obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Moscatel model, and four representative seeds of cultivar Mollar Cano. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 13.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Beba, Bruñal, Caíño Tinto, Castellana Blanca, Garnacha Tinta, Gewürztraminer, Malvasía Aromática, Mollar Cano, Moscatel de Alejandría, Moscatel de Grano Menudo, Palomino Fino, Prieto Picudo with the Moscatel model.

**Figure 14.**Tortozón. From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Tortozón model, and four representative seeds of this cultivar. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 15.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Imperial and Tortozón with the Tortozón model.

**Figure 16.**Teta de Vaca model. From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds of cultivar Teta de Vaca, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Teta de Vaca model, and four representative seeds of this cultivar. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 17.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Dominga, Teta de Vaca and Verdejo with the Teta de Vaca model.

**Figure 18.**From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the Doña Blanca model, and four representative seeds of Doña Blanca. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 19.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Doña Blanca, Monastrell and Pedro Ximénez with the Doña Blanca model.

**Figure 20.**From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, Airén the model, and four representative seeds of Airén. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Figure 21.**Box-plot representations showing the distribution of J index values in cultivars Airén, Bobal and Mazuela with the Airén model.

**Figure 22.**From left to right: A sum of the silhouettes of 30 seeds, a silhouette obtained by the pixel profile of the first image, the De Cuerno model, and four representative De Cuerno seeds. Bar represents 1 cm.

**Table 1.**Mean J index values in the cultivars with their respective models. Underlined: cultivars that gave highest values of J index with each of the models.

Model | Cultivars (J Index Values) |
---|---|

Listán Prieto | Listán Prieto (90.7), Tortozona Tinta (92.6) |

Sylvestris | CA 13.4 (90.7), CA 13.6 (89.3), SE 2.1 (90.4) |

Albillo Real | Alarije (90.8), Albillo Real (91.5), Cayetana Blanca (90.0), Graciano (91.1), Juan García (90.0), Tempranillo (90.9) |

Hebén | Hebén (90,0), Macabeo (90.8), Zalema (91.6) |

Moscatel | Beba (91.2), Bruñal (92.2), Caíño Tinto (90.6), Castellana Blanca (91.4), Garnacha Tínta (88.8), Gewürztraminer (90.8), Malvasía Aromática (90.3), Mollar Cano (90.8), Moscatel de Alejandría (90.5), Moscatel de Grano Menudo (90.4), Palomino Fino (91.0), Prieto Picudo (90.9) |

Tortozón | Imperial (88.9), Tortozón (89.9) |

Teta de Vaca | Dominga (90.4), Teta de Vaca (90.4), Verdejo (90.3) |

Doña Blanca | Doña Blanca (91.0), Monastrell (89.4), Pedro Ximénez (90.5) |

Airén | Airén (90.4), Bobal (90.3), Mazuela (90.1) |

De Cuerno | De Cuerno (88.8) |

**Table 2.**Mean values for morphological characters in the groups corresponding to the differentmodels. Groups are denominated by the corresponding model and appear ordered by increasing values of aspect ratio (AR). The mean values marked with the same letter in each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (Scheffe’s test). N is the number of seeds analysed.

Model | N | Area | Perimeter | Length | Width | AR | Circularity | Roundness |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Listan Prieto | 60 | 17.2 ^{d} | 16.8 ^{e} | 5.4 ^{f} | 4.0 ^{b} | 1.3 ^{f} | 0.76 ^{a} | 0.75 ^{a} |

Sylvestris | 90 | 13.8 ^{e} | 14.8 ^{f} | 5.0 ^{g} | 3.5 ^{e} | 1.4 ^{e} | 0.78 ^{a} | 0.70 ^{b} |

Albillo Real | 180 | 18.7 ^{c} | 17.8 ^{d} | 5.8 ^{de} | 4.1 ^{b} | 1.4 ^{e} | 0.73 ^{b} | 0.70 ^{b} |

Hebén | 90 | 17.3 ^{d} | 17.3 ^{e} | 5.8 ^{e} | 3.8 ^{cd} | 1.5 ^{d} | 0.72 ^{c} | 0.66 ^{c} |

Moscatel | 356 | 16.8 ^{d} | 17.3 ^{e} | 5.8 ^{e} | 3.7 ^{d} | 1.6 ^{c} | 0.70 ^{d} | 0.64 ^{d} |

Tortozon | 60 | 17.6 ^{cd} | 18.5 ^{c} | 6.0 ^{d} | 3.7 ^{cd} | 1.6 ^{c} | 0.66 ^{e} | 0.63 ^{d} |

Teta de Vaca | 90 | 23.2 ^{b} | 20.1 ^{b} | 6.8 ^{b} | 4.3 ^{a} | 1.6 ^{c} | 0.72 ^{bc} | 0.63 ^{d} |

Doña Blanca | 90 | 18.7 ^{c} | 18.4 ^{cd} | 6.4 ^{c} | 3.7 ^{cd} | 1.7 ^{b} | 0.70 ^{d} | 0.59 ^{e} |

Airén | 90 | 17.5 ^{d} | 18.1 ^{cd} | 6.2 ^{c} | 3.6 ^{e} | 1.7 ^{b} | 0.67 ^{e} | 0.57 ^{e} |

De Cuerno | 20 | 29.1 ^{a} | 25.9 ^{a} | 9.4 ^{a} | 3.9 ^{bc} | 2.4 ^{a} | 0.55 ^{f} | 0.42 ^{f} |

**Table 3.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Listán Prieto group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Listán Prieto | 30 | 19.2 ^{a} (1.31) | 16.5 | 21.4 | 90.7 ^{b} (1.32) | 87.7 | 92.9 |

TortozonaTinta | 30 | 15.2 ^{b} (1.21) | 12.1 | 17.1 | 92.6 ^{a} (1.42) | 89.5 | 94.6 |

**Table 4.**Values of area and J index in the three cultivars of the Sylvestris group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min. | Max. | Mean (Std Dev) | Min. | Max. | ||

CA 13.4 | 20 | 13.7 ^{b} (1.24) | 11.5 | 15.7 | 90.7 ^{a} (1.15) | 89.2 | 92.8 |

CA 13.6 | 20 | 14.8 ^{a} (1.56) | 12.9 | 17.9 | 89.3 ^{b} (1.57) | 86.8 | 91.7 |

SE 2.1 | 20 | 12.6 ^{c} (0.99) | 10.1 | 14.2 | 90.4 ^{ab} (1.67) | 86.6 | 92.8 |

**Table 5.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Albillo Real group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min. | Max. | Mean (Std Dev) | Min. | Max. | ||

Alarije | 30 | 18.0 ^{bc} (1.59) | 15.2 | 21.2 | 90.8 ^{ab} (2.10) | 83.8 | 93.2 |

Albillo Real | 30 | 16.2 ^{d} (1.17) | 13.2 | 17.9 | 91.5 ^{a} (2.06) | 85.4 | 94.5 |

Cayetana Blanca | 30 | 18.6 ^{b} (1.43) | 15.8 | 22.7 | 91.0 ^{ab} (4.84) | 85.4 | 93.6 |

Graciano | 30 | 17.3 ^{c} (1.22) | 14.5 | 20.1 | 91.1 ^{ab} (1.62) | 87.0 | 93.5 |

Juan García | 30 | 22.9 ^{a} (1.68) | 20.2 | 26.0 | 90.0 ^{b} (1.74) | 83.0 | 92.0 |

Tempranillo | 30 | 18.9 ^{b} (0.99) | 16.4 | 20.6 | 90.9 ^{ab} (1.28) | 88.1 | 93.1 |

**Table 6.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Hebén group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Hebén | 30 | 21.2 ^{a} (1.68) | 18.3 | 24.8 | 90.0 ^{b} (1.72) | 85.7 | 91.9 |

Macabeo | 30 | 16.1 ^{b} (0.83) | 13.9 | 18.1 | 90.8 ^{a,b} (1.70) | 86.1 | 93.1 |

Zalema | 30 | 14.6 ^{c} (0.99) | 12.7 | 17.2 | 91.6 ^{a} (1.26) | 89.1 | 94.0 |

**Table 7.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Moscatel group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index Moscatel | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Beba | 30 | 14.7 ^{f} (0.82) | 13.2 | 16.3 | 91.2 ^{ab} (1.43) | 88.1 | 93.3 |

Bruñal | 30 | 14.6 ^{fg} (0.93) | 13.0 | 16.5 | 92.2 ^{a} (1.12) | 89.7 | 94.4 |

Caíño Tinto | 30 | 23.7 ^{a} (1.85) | 20.2 | 27.8 | 90.6 ^{ab} (2.99) | 82.7 | 94.3 |

Castellana Blanca | 30 | 20.1 ^{b} (1.14) | 18.0 | 23.3 | 91.4 ^{ab} (0.91) | 89.6 | 93.7 |

Garnacha Tinta | 30 | 13.9 ^{gf} ((0.94) | 12.1 | 15.9 | 88.8 ^{c} (3.03) | 81.6 | 92.7 |

Gewürztraminer | 30 | 17.2 ^{de} (0.79) | 15.1 | 18.5 | 90.8 ^{ab} (2.43) | 83.1 | 93.7 |

Malvasía Aromática | 30 | 17.5 ^{d} (1.02) | 15.0 | 19.9 | 90.3 ^{bc} (1.55) | 85.4 | 92.5 |

Mollar Cano | 30 | 18.5 ^{c} (0.77) | 16.9 | 20.1 | 90.8 ^{ab} (1.68) | 87.6 | 94.0 |

Moscatel de Alejandría | 30 | 17.2 ^{de} (1.54) | 14.5 | 20.2 | 90.5 ^{ab} (2.53) | 83.2 | 93.2 |

Moscatel de Grano Menudo | 30 | 13.8 ^{g} (0.84) | 11.9 | 15.4 | 90.4 ^{bc} (2.12) | 84.3 | 93.1 |

Palomino Fino | 30 | 14.5 ^{fg} (072) | 12.9 | 16.2 | 91.0 ^{ab} (1.69) | 86.7 | 93.8 |

Prieto Picudo | 26 | 16.4 ^{e} (0.84) | 14.2 | 17.5 | 90.9 ^{ab} (2.07) | 84.3 | 93.3 |

**Table 8.**Values of J index in the cultivars Imperial and Tortozón. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Imperial | 30 | 17.5 ^{a} (1.18) | 15.6 | 20.2 | 88.9 ^{b} (2.24) | 82.9 | 92.1 |

Tortozón | 30 | 17.7 ^{a} (0.93) | 16.0 | 20.1 | 89.9 ^{a} (1.52) | 84.9 | 92.3 |

**Table 9.**Values of area and J index in the two cultivars of the Teta de Vaca group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Scheffé test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Dominga | 30 | 23.8 ^{b} (1.50) | 20.7 | 23.8 | 90.4 ^{a}(2.60) | 79.3 | 93.7 |

Teta de Vaca | 30 | 25.8 ^{a} (1.73) | 20.3 | 29.1 | 90.4 ^{a}(1.81) | 86.0 | 93.8 |

Verdejo | 30 | 20.0 ^{c} (0.87) | 17.8 | 21.3 | 90.3 ^{a}(1.09) | 87.8 | 92.3 |

**Table 10.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Doña Blanca group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Tukey test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Doña Blanca | 30 | 18.3 ^{b} (1.17) | 15.9 | 20.9 | 91.0 ^{a} (2.93) | 81.9 | 94.2 |

Monastrell | 30 | 20.4 ^{a} (1.46) | 17.4 | 23.1 | 89.4 ^{b} (2.09) | 84.7 | 92.0 |

Pedro Ximénez | 30 | 17.4 ^{c} (0.87) | 15.1 | 19.0 | 90.5 ^{ab} (1.73) | 85.9 | 93.7 |

**Table 11.**Values of area and J index in the cultivars of the Airen group. Superscript letters indicate the results of Tukey test: the mean values marked with the same letter in the superindex of each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05. N is the number of seeds analyzed.

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | ||

Airen | 30 | 17.7 ^{a} (1.21) | 15.5 | 19.7 | 90.4 ^{a} (2.09) | 83.9 | 94.1 |

Bobal | 30 | 18.3 ^{a} (1.30) | 15.7 | 20.8 | 90.3 ^{a}(2.02) | 84.3 | 94.0 |

Mazuela | 30 | 16.4 ^{b} (0.96) | 14.5 | 18.3 | 90.1 ^{a}(1.93) | 85.3 | 92.8 |

Cultivar | N | Area | J Index | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | Mean (Std Dev) | Min | Max | |||

De Cuerno | 20 | 29.1 (1.46) | 26.0 | 31.1 | 88.8 (1.63) | 85.8 | 91.6 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Cervantes, E.; Martín-Gómez, J.J.; Espinosa-Roldán, F.E.; Muñoz-Organero, G.; Tocino, Á.; Cabello-Sáenz de Santamaría, F.
Seed Morphology in Key Spanish Grapevine Cultivars. *Agronomy* **2021**, *11*, 734.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040734

**AMA Style**

Cervantes E, Martín-Gómez JJ, Espinosa-Roldán FE, Muñoz-Organero G, Tocino Á, Cabello-Sáenz de Santamaría F.
Seed Morphology in Key Spanish Grapevine Cultivars. *Agronomy*. 2021; 11(4):734.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040734

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cervantes, Emilio, José Javier Martín-Gómez, Francisco Emmanuel Espinosa-Roldán, Gregorio Muñoz-Organero, Ángel Tocino, and Félix Cabello-Sáenz de Santamaría.
2021. "Seed Morphology in Key Spanish Grapevine Cultivars" *Agronomy* 11, no. 4: 734.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040734