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Article

Alternative Herbicides for Controlling Herbicide-Resistant Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in Turf

1
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia
2
Plant Science Consulting, Prospect, SA 5082, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Longxing Hu
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112148
Received: 5 October 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 24 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Environmental Stress Tolerance in Forage and Turfgrass)
Poa annua is a cosmopolitan, cool-season grass species regarded as one of the most significant weeds of turfgrass. It is mainly controlled by herbicides; however, repeated use of herbicides in golf turf has resulted in the evolution of multiple-herbicide resistant P. annua. Four field experiments were performed in autumn and spring in golf turf to identify effective herbicide options to control multiple herbicide-resistant P. annua. In herbicide resistance screening, the trial site population (SA1) was found to be susceptible to amicarbazone and terbuthylazine, but resistant to simazine and metribuzin at the field rate of each herbicide. Consistent with the results of the pot study, the PSII-inhibiting herbicides amicarbazone and terbuthylazine provided the best control (80–100%) of P. annua in both autumn and spring trials with minimal damage to the turf. In contrast, the other two PSII-inhibiting herbicides, metribuzin and simazine, were relatively ineffective in controlling P. annua in the field. Indaziflam also performed well in both autumn trials and reduced P. annua occurrence by >75%. Pyroxasulfone and s-metolachlor only provided moderate weed control in both the autumn and spring trials, reducing P. annua occurrence by 50%. Among the nine different herbicides, amicarbazone and terbuthylazine were found to be most effective for spring and autumn application in turf. As resistance to some PSII-inhibiting herbicides has already evolved in this field population, the use of amicarbazone and terbuthylazine needs to be integrated with other herbicide modes of action and non-chemical tactics to delay the onset of resistance to them. View Full-Text
Keywords: Poa annua L.; annual bluegrass; amicarbazone; terbuthylazine; indaziflam; weed management Poa annua L.; annual bluegrass; amicarbazone; terbuthylazine; indaziflam; weed management
MDPI and ACS Style

Barua, R.; Boutsalis, P.; Kleemann, S.; Malone, J.; Gill, G.; Preston, C. Alternative Herbicides for Controlling Herbicide-Resistant Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in Turf. Agronomy 2021, 11, 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112148

AMA Style

Barua R, Boutsalis P, Kleemann S, Malone J, Gill G, Preston C. Alternative Herbicides for Controlling Herbicide-Resistant Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in Turf. Agronomy. 2021; 11(11):2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112148

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barua, Rajesh, Peter Boutsalis, Samuel Kleemann, Jenna Malone, Gurjeet Gill, and Christopher Preston. 2021. "Alternative Herbicides for Controlling Herbicide-Resistant Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in Turf" Agronomy 11, no. 11: 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112148

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