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Article

Parthenocarpy and Self-Incompatibility in Mandarins

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Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera CV-315, km 10.7, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
2
Centro de Citricultura y Producción Vegetal, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera CV-315, km 10.7, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
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CIRAD, UMR AGAP, 20230 San Giuliano, France
4
UMR AGAP, Institut Agro, CIRAD, INRAE, Université Montpellier, 34060 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vicente J. Febres
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11102023
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
Citrus reproductive biology is complex. One of its characteristic features is parthenocarpy that enables seedless fruit production. Citrus parthenocarpy and self-incompatibility knowledge is only partial and sometimes discrepant. Increasing such knowledge is relevant for better managing cultivated varieties and improving the selection of parents in breeding strategies to recover seedless varieties such as mandarins. This work develops an efficient protocol to characterize self-incompatibility and different parthenocarpy types based on emasculation, hand self-pollination, and hand cross-pollination. It analyzes fruit setting and seed production coupled with histological pollen performance observations. We analyzed the reproductive behavior of nine mandarin varieties with relevant characteristics as parents for seedless mandarin breeding. ‘Clemenules’ clementine and ‘Moncada’ mandarins were strictly self-incompatible with facultative and vegetative parthenocarpy; ‘Imperial’ mandarin and ‘Ellendale’ tangor displayed no strict self-incompatibility associated with facultative and vegetative parthenocarpy; ‘Fortune’ mandarin was self-incompatible with facultative and stimulative parthenocarpy; ‘Campeona’ and ‘Salteñita’ mandarins were self-compatible with vegetative parthenocarpy; ‘Serafines’ satsuma was associated with male sterility together with facultative and vegetative parthenocarpy; and ‘Monreal’ clementine was self-compatible and nonparthenocarpic. Our protocol can be applied for screening of mandarin germplasm and to characterize new parents. Reproductive behavior knowledge is important for optimizing seedless mandarin breeding programs based on diploidy, triploidy, or induced mutagenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus; seedless; parthenocarpic ability; pollination; fruit setting; breeding citrus; seedless; parthenocarpic ability; pollination; fruit setting; breeding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montalt, R.; Vives, M.C.; Navarro, L.; Ollitrault, P.; Aleza, P. Parthenocarpy and Self-Incompatibility in Mandarins. Agronomy 2021, 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11102023

AMA Style

Montalt R, Vives MC, Navarro L, Ollitrault P, Aleza P. Parthenocarpy and Self-Incompatibility in Mandarins. Agronomy. 2021; 11(10):2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11102023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montalt, Rafael, María C. Vives, Luis Navarro, Patrick Ollitrault, and Pablo Aleza. 2021. "Parthenocarpy and Self-Incompatibility in Mandarins" Agronomy 11, no. 10: 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11102023

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