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Article

Long-Term Nitrogen Fertilization Impacts on Soil Bacteria, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in Semiarid Loess Plateau, China

1
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
3
Dingxi Agricultural Products Quality and Safety Monitoring and Testing Station, Dingxi 743000, China
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Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
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International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Hyderabad, Telangana 502324, India
6
College of Resource and Environment, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(8), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081175
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 2 August 2020 / Accepted: 9 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Healthy in Agro-ecosystems)
Soil bacteria are key components of the soil microbial community contributing to soil health. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important factor that affects soil microbial community and cereal production. This study aims to explore the impact of long-term N fertilization on soil bacterial diversity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and the grain yield of wheat in the semiarid region of Loess Plateau, China. The field experiment was conducted from 2003 to 2018 including five N treatments: 0 (N0), 52.5 (N52.5), 105 (N105), 157.5 (N157.5), and 210 (N210) kg N ha−1 yr−1. The soil pH was decreased by the N fertilization, while the soil ammonium, nitrate, and available phosphorus were increased. The N uptake and grain yield of wheat were significantly increased with N and the highest NUE (28%) and grain yield (44% higher than control) were observed at 105 kg N ha−1, but no significant increase in yield was observed by further increasing N rate. The bacterial diversity was significantly increased at N105. Soil bacteria community was strongly related to soil chemical properties and ammonium content was the most important contributor. The dominant soil bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The higher grain yield of wheat was related to the higher class Gammaproteobacteria and Sphingobacteriia abundance, and lower class Acidobacteria and Chloroflexia abundance. In summary, 105 kg ha−1 yr−1 was the optimum rate of N for diversified soil bacterial community and wheat yield for sustainable wheat production in semiarid Loess Plateau of China, whose higher N use efficiency was attributed to the higher phyla Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, and lower Proteobacteria abundance. View Full-Text
Keywords: 16S rRNA; soil properties; sacteria community; nitrogen use efficiency 16S rRNA; soil properties; sacteria community; nitrogen use efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, A.; Li, L.; Coulter, J.A.; Xie, J.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Zhang, R.; Luo, Z.; Cai, L.; Liu, C.; Wang, L.; Khan, S. Long-Term Nitrogen Fertilization Impacts on Soil Bacteria, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in Semiarid Loess Plateau, China. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081175

AMA Style

Xu A, Li L, Coulter JA, Xie J, Gopalakrishnan S, Zhang R, Luo Z, Cai L, Liu C, Wang L, Khan S. Long-Term Nitrogen Fertilization Impacts on Soil Bacteria, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in Semiarid Loess Plateau, China. Agronomy. 2020; 10(8):1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Aixia, Lingling Li, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Junhong Xie, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Liqun Cai, Chang Liu, Linlin Wang, and Shahbaz Khan. 2020. "Long-Term Nitrogen Fertilization Impacts on Soil Bacteria, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in Semiarid Loess Plateau, China" Agronomy 10, no. 8: 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081175

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