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Open AccessArticle

Resource Utilization Efficiencies in a Closed System with Artificial Lighting during Continuous Lettuce Production

1
Graduate Scheel of Humanities and Sustainable System Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Sakai 599-8531, Japan
2
Osaka Sakai Plant Factory Co., 209-1, Shimpukuji, Sakai 587-0013, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050723
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 2 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vertical Farming in Modern Horticultural Crop Production)
New plant production systems with a low environmental impact (or a high resource utilization efficiency) are necessary for urban agriculture development. This study explores the benefits of closed plant production systems (CPPSs) with artificial lighting using a commercial CPPS at Osaka Prefecture University. Lettuce plants were produced continuously as a model for analyzing resource consumption rates, such as electricity, labor, water, and CO2, over two years. Monthly consumption rates of electricity, labor, water, and CO2 increased with the increase in the monthly production rate of the lettuce. The utilization efficiencies (=output/input) of electricity, energy, water, and CO2 were 1.0%, 1.0%, 4.0%, and 32.6%, respectively. If the commercial CPPS maintains the monthly production rate at a higher level, the energy utilization efficiency will increase. The number of air exchanges in a commercial CPPS should decrease to increase water and CO2 utilization efficiencies. Reusing water drained from the air conditioning system and employing a closed loop in the nutrient supply system also contribute to increasing the water utilization efficiency and lowering the environmental impact. Although a commercial CPPS still requires further improvements, it may be a good crop production system for urban agriculture provided resource utilization efficiencies improve. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2; environmental impact; electricity; labor; urban agriculture; water CO2; environmental impact; electricity; labor; urban agriculture; water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ohyama, K.; Yamaguchi, J.; Enjoji, A. Resource Utilization Efficiencies in a Closed System with Artificial Lighting during Continuous Lettuce Production. Agronomy 2020, 10, 723.

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