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Open AccessArticle

A Wild Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.), Thouars, IBS 3471, for Improved Insect-Resistance in Cultivated Pigeonpea

1
Centre for Agriculture and the Bioeconomy, Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Agriculture and Food, Canberra 2601, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040517
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 22 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.), Thouars, is the closest wild crop relative of cultivated pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.), Millspaugh. This wild pigeonpea has several insect-resistance mechanisms, particularly to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Estimated economic losses in the semi-arid tropics from H. armigera damage in pigeonpea are approximately two billion USD/year. Therefore, it is imperative to improve pest resistance in this crop. In this study, we investigated insect-resistance components in IBS 3471, a C. scarabaeoides accession, and explored the possibility of transferring resistance mechanism/s to cultivated pigeonpea. A detached leaf bioassay revealed that IBS 3471 has more effective antibiosis and antixenosis resistance mechanisms against H. armigera compared to the susceptible C. cajan variety, ICPL 87. To further investigate the antibiosis resistance mechanism, we fed H. armigera larvae a heated and non-heated artificial diet supplemented with lyophilised IBS 3471 leaf powder. Incorporation of IBS 3471 leaf powder inhibited H. armigera larval weight and delayed larval development compared to larvae reared on diet supplemented with ICPL 87 leaf powder. The putative insect-resistance compounds in C. scarabaeoides were heat-labile. Proteomic analysis revealed higher levels of potential insecticidal proteins, namely lectin and cysteine proteinase inhibitor, in wild pigeonpea compared to the cultivated variety. Nutritional analysis and interspecific hybridisation experiments also indicated that IBS 3471 is a potential candidate for improvement of insect-resistance in pigeonpea. This study demonstrates that IBS 3471 has multiple resistance mechanisms against H. armigera, and they are transferable to cultivated pigeonpea. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiosis; antixenosis; Cajanus cajan; Helicoverpa armigera; pigeonpea; pod borer; trichome; Cajanus scarabaeoides; insect resistance antibiosis; antixenosis; Cajanus cajan; Helicoverpa armigera; pigeonpea; pod borer; trichome; Cajanus scarabaeoides; insect resistance
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3667027.svg
    Link: https://zenodo.org/record/3702526#.XmeOJHduI2x,
    Description: Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.3667027.svg, Table S1. Preliminary screening for insect-resistance using non-heat-treated artificial diet supplemented with lyophilised leaf powder from 11 accessions of C. scarabaeoides and C. cajan received from Australian Grains Genebank, Figure S1. Average larval weight of H. armigera fed on different accessions of C. scarabaeoides and C. cajan using non-heated (green bars) and heated (red bars) artificial diet supplemented with lyophilised leaf powder, Table S2. Nutritional composition of raw mature seeds, Table S3. Summary of protein abundance for cysteine proteinase inhibitor and Lectin-domain containing receptor kinase A4.2 in Cajanus cajan (ICPL 87) and Cajanus scarabaeoides (IBS 3471) leaves.
MDPI and ACS Style

Ngugi-Dawit, A.; Hoang, T.M.L.; Williams, B.; Higgins, T.J.; Mundree, S.G. A Wild Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.), Thouars, IBS 3471, for Improved Insect-Resistance in Cultivated Pigeonpea. Agronomy 2020, 10, 517.

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