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Polymers 2016, 8(8), 276;

Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure

Helmholtz Institute Ulm (HIU), Helmholtzstrasse 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Helmholtzstrasse 8, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Pizzi
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2220 KB, uploaded 2 August 2016]   |  


This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG) or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries’ pH, phosphoric acid (PA) is used as a pH-modifier. The electrodes are characterized in terms of morphology, adhesion strength and electrochemical performance. In the absence of phosphoric acid, hydrogen evolution occurs upon coating the slurry onto the aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of cavities in the coated electrode, as well as poor cohesion on the current collector itself. Consequently, the electrochemical performance of the coated electrodes is also improved by the addition of PA in the slurries. At a 5C rate, CMC/PA-based electrodes delivered 144 mAh·g−1, while PA-free electrodes reached only 124 mAh·g−1. When GG and pectin are used as binders, the adhesion of the coated layers to the current collector is reduced; however, the electrodes show comparable, if not slightly better, electrochemical performance than those based on CMC. Full lithium-ion cells, utilizing CMC/PA-made Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2 (NMC) cathodes and LTO anodes offer a stable discharge capacity of ~120 mAh·g−1(NMC) with high coulombic efficiencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium batteries; lithium titanate LTO; water-soluble binders; CMC; guar gum; pectin lithium batteries; lithium titanate LTO; water-soluble binders; CMC; guar gum; pectin

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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    Description: Additional measurements on the use of natural polymers as binders for Li-ion battery electrodes

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Carvalho, D.V.; Loeffler, N.; Kim, G.-T.; Marinaro, M.; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M.; Passerini, S. Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure. Polymers 2016, 8, 276.

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