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Article

3D Bioprinted Bacteriostatic Hyperelastic Bone Scaffold for Damage-Specific Bone Regeneration

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
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Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
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Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
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Department of Orthopedics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
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Atlanta Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA 30033, USA
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
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Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
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Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt
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Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom St, Thier 11, Boston, MA 02114, USA
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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan 0025, Armenia
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Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Precision Health Program & Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
15
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Jianxun Ding
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071099
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing in Biomedicine)
Current strategies for regeneration of large bone fractures yield limited clinical success mainly due to poor integration and healing. Multidisciplinary approaches in design and development of functional tissue engineered scaffolds are required to overcome these translational challenges. Here, a new generation of hyperelastic bone (HB) implants, loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), are 3D bioprinted and their regenerative effect on large non-healing bone fractures is studied. Scaffolds are bioprinted with the geometry that closely correspond to that of the bone defect, using an osteoconductive, highly elastic, surgically friendly bioink mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. Incorporation of SPIONs into HB bioink results in enhanced bacteriostatic properties of bone grafts while exhibiting no cytotoxicity. In vitro culture of mouse embryonic cells and human osteoblast-like cells remain viable and functional up to 14 days on printed HB scaffolds. Implantation of damage-specific bioprinted constructs into a rat model of femoral bone defect demonstrates significant regenerative effect over the 2-week time course. While no infection, immune rejection, or fibrotic encapsulation is observed, HB grafts show rapid integration with host tissue, ossification, and growth of new bone. These results suggest a great translational potential for 3D bioprinted HB scaffolds, laden with functional nanoparticles, for hard tissue engineering applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: damage-specific scaffold; bone 3D bioprinting; tissue engineering; hyperelastic bone; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; antibacterial; large bone fracture damage-specific scaffold; bone 3D bioprinting; tissue engineering; hyperelastic bone; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; antibacterial; large bone fracture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shokouhimehr, M.; Theus, A.S.; Kamalakar, A.; Ning, L.; Cao, C.; Tomov, M.L.; Kaiser, J.M.; Goudy, S.; Willett, N.J.; Jang, H.W.; LaRock, C.N.; Hanna, P.; Lechtig, A.; Yousef, M.; Martins, J.D.S.; Nazarian, A.; Harris, M.B.; Mahmoudi, M.; Serpooshan, V. 3D Bioprinted Bacteriostatic Hyperelastic Bone Scaffold for Damage-Specific Bone Regeneration. Polymers 2021, 13, 1099. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071099

AMA Style

Shokouhimehr M, Theus AS, Kamalakar A, Ning L, Cao C, Tomov ML, Kaiser JM, Goudy S, Willett NJ, Jang HW, LaRock CN, Hanna P, Lechtig A, Yousef M, Martins JDS, Nazarian A, Harris MB, Mahmoudi M, Serpooshan V. 3D Bioprinted Bacteriostatic Hyperelastic Bone Scaffold for Damage-Specific Bone Regeneration. Polymers. 2021; 13(7):1099. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071099

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shokouhimehr, Mohammadreza, Andrea S. Theus, Archana Kamalakar, Liqun Ning, Cong Cao, Martin L. Tomov, Jarred M. Kaiser, Steven Goudy, Nick J. Willett, Ho W. Jang, Christopher N. LaRock, Philip Hanna, Aron Lechtig, Mohamed Yousef, Janaina D.S. Martins, Ara Nazarian, Mitchel B. Harris, Morteza Mahmoudi, and Vahid Serpooshan. 2021. "3D Bioprinted Bacteriostatic Hyperelastic Bone Scaffold for Damage-Specific Bone Regeneration" Polymers 13, no. 7: 1099. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071099

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