Next Article in Journal
Controlled ATRP Synthesis of Novel Linear-Dendritic Block Copolymers and Their Directed Self-Assembly in Breath Figure Arrays
Next Article in Special Issue
Oxidative Depolymerization of Cellulolytic Enzyme Lignin over Silicotungvanadium Polyoxometalates
Previous Article in Journal
Kinetics of Alkoxysilanes and Organoalkoxysilanes Polymerization: A Review
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Lignin Structural Diversity on Performance of Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF)-Starch Composite Films

1
Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 56-58, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., 5-21-1 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002, Japan
3
Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, 27 Dzerbenes Str., LV 1006 Riga, Latvia
4
WWSC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 56-58, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030538
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties, Applications and Perspectives of Lignin)
  |  
PDF [4233 KB, uploaded 28 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Lignin fractions having different molecular weights and varied chemical structures isolated from kraft lignins of both softwood and hardwood via a sequential solvent fractionation technique were incorporated into a tunicate cellulose nanofibers (CNF)—starch mixture to prepare 100% bio-based composite films. The aim was to investigate the impact of lignin structural diversity on film performance. It was confirmed that lignin’s distribution in the films was dependent on the polarity of solvents used for fractionation (acetone > methanol > ethanol > ethyl acetate) and influenced the optical properties of the films. The –OH group content and molecular weight of lignin were positively related to film density. In general, the addition of lignin fractions led to decrease in thermal stability and increase in Young’s modulus of the composite films. The modulus of the films was found to decrease as the molecular weight of lignin increased, and a higher amount of carboxyl and phenolic –OH groups in the lignin fraction resulted in films with higher stiffness. The thermal analysis showed higher char content formation for lignin-containing films in a nitrogen atmosphere with increased molecular weight. In an oxygen atmosphere, the phenol content, saturated side chains and short chain structures of lignin had impacts on the maximum decomposition temperature of the films, confirming the relationship between the chemical structure of lignin and thermo-oxidative stability of the corresponding film. This study addresses the importance of lignin diversities on composite film performance, which could be helpful for tailoring lignin’s applications in bio-based materials based on their specific characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; successive solvent fractionation; tunicate cellulose nanofibers-starch-lignin composites; film properties; interrelation lignin; successive solvent fractionation; tunicate cellulose nanofibers-starch-lignin composites; film properties; interrelation
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Tagami, A.; Dobele, G.; Lindström, M.E.; Sevastyanova, O. The Impact of Lignin Structural Diversity on Performance of Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF)-Starch Composite Films. Polymers 2019, 11, 538.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top