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The Effect of Glycerol, Sugar, and Maleic Anhydride on Pectin-Cellulose Thin Films Prepared from Orange Waste

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
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Polymers 2019, 11(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030392
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers for Engineered Green Materials)
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Abstract

This study was conducted to improve the properties of thin films prepared from orange waste by the solution casting method. The main focus was the elimination of holes in the film structure by establishing better cohesion between the major cellulosic and pectin fractions. For this, a previously developed method was improved first by the addition of sugar to promote pectin gelling, then by the addition of maleic anhydride. Principally, maleic anhydride was introduced to the films to induce cross-linking within the film structure. The effects of concentrations of sugar and glycerol as plasticizers and maleic anhydride as a cross-linking agent on the film characteristics were studied. Maleic anhydride improved the structure, resulting in a uniform film, and morphology studies showed better adhesion between components. However, it did not act as a cross-linking agent, but rather as a compatibilizer. The middle level (0.78%) of maleic anhydride content resulted in the highest tensile strength (26.65 ± 3.20 MPa) at low (7%) glycerol and high (14%) sugar levels and the highest elongation (28.48% ± 4.34%) at high sugar and glycerol levels. To achieve a uniform film surface with no holes present, only the lowest (0.39%) level of maleic anhydride was necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-based; film; mechanical properties; polysaccharides; resource recovery; solution casting; orange waste bio-based; film; mechanical properties; polysaccharides; resource recovery; solution casting; orange waste
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bátori, V.; Lundin, M.; Åkesson, D.; Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J.; Zamani, A. The Effect of Glycerol, Sugar, and Maleic Anhydride on Pectin-Cellulose Thin Films Prepared from Orange Waste. Polymers 2019, 11, 392.

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