In order to solve the poor rubbing fastness of dyed cotton fiber in the indigo/silicon non-aqueous dyeing system, the process parameters of the silicon non-aqueous dyeing system were optimized. Dyed cotton fiber was post-treated to achieve the optimum dyeing conditions for obtaining a better rubbing fastness. Meanwhile, the dyeing performance of cotton fiber in a traditional water bath and silicon non-aqueous dyeing system was compared. The results showed that the rubbing fastness of dyed cotton fiber in the silicon non-aqueous dyeing system (one dyeing) was lower than that of traditional water bath (twelve cycles), although the color depth of dyed cotton fiber was deeper. For obtaining a good rubbing fastness, the optimum temperature was about 70 °C and the optimal dyeing cycle was one. Moreover, fixing agents can significantly improve the rubbing fastness of dyed cotton fiber. Especially, cationic waterborne polyurethane had an optimal fixing effect on the dyed cotton fiber. Soft finishing would weaken the effect of fixing finishing on the dyed cotton fiber, but the softener can significantly improve the handle of dyed cotton fiber.
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