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Open AccessArticle

Wasted Ganoderma tsugae Derived Chitosans for Smear Layer Removal in Endodontic Treatment

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106-08, Taiwan
Research Center of Biomedical Device, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-52, Taiwan
School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
Department of Dentistry, Taipei Municipal Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei 116-96, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
International Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
Research Center of Digital Oral Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 110-52, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1795;
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Polymer-Based Composites)
The objective of this study is to investigate the synergistic effects of acid etching and metal-ion chelation in dental smear layer removal using wasted Ganoderma tsugae derived chitosans. The wasted Ganoderma tsugae fruiting body was used to prepare both acid-soluble fungal chitosan (FCS) and alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP). To explore the effective irrigant concentration for smear layer removal, a chelating effect on ferrous ions was conducted. Specimens of various concentrations of EDTA, citric acid, and polysaccharide solutions were reacted with FerroZine™ then the absorbance was examined at 562 nm by a UV-visible spectrophotometer to calculate their metal chelating capability. Twenty extracted premolars were instrumented and individually soaked in the solutions of 15 wt% EDTA, 10 wt% citric acid, 0.04 wt% ASP, 0.04 wt% FCS, and normal saline were randomly divided into five groups (N=4). Next, each tooth was cleaved longitudinally and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assay the effectiveness of smear layer removal. The chelating capability for EDTA, FCS, and ASP showed no significant difference over the concentration of 0.04 wt% (p > 0.05). The SEM results showed that 0.04 wt% FCS solution was effective in smear layer removal along the canal wall. These results indicated that Ganoderma tsuage derived FCS in acid solutions could be a potential alternative as a root canal irrigant solution due to its synergistic effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: EDTA; polysaccharide; chelating effect; smear layer removal EDTA; polysaccharide; chelating effect; smear layer removal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.-T.; Teng, N.-C.; Wang, H.-H.; Hsieh, S.-C.; Yang, J.-C. Wasted Ganoderma tsugae Derived Chitosans for Smear Layer Removal in Endodontic Treatment. Polymers 2019, 11, 1795.

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