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Polymers 2018, 10(6), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060685

A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields

Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft, The Netherlands
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Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Characterization)
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Abstract

We review the development and application of an organic polymer-gel capable of producing fixed, three-dimensional fluorescent images of complex radiation fields. The gel consists for more than 99% of γ-ray-polymerized (~15% conversion) tertiary-butyl acrylate (TBA) containing ~100 ppm of a fluorogenic compound, e.g., maleimido-pyrene (MPy). The radio-fluorogenic effect depends on copolymerization of the MPy into growing chains of TBA on radiation-induced polymerization. This converts the maleimido residue, which quenches the pyrene fluorescence, into a succinimido moeity (SPy), which does not. The intensity of the fluorescence is proportional to the yield of free-radicals formed and hence to the local dose deposited. Because the SPy moieties are built into the polymer network, the image is fixed. The method of preparing the gel and imaging the radiation-induced fluorescence are presented and discussed. The effect is illustrated with fluorescent images of the energy deposited in the gel by beams of X-rays, electrons, and protons as well as a radioactive isotope. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D dose imaging; radio-fluorogenic gel; polymer gel dosimetry; radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization; tertiary-butyl acrylate gel; proton beam imaging 3D dose imaging; radio-fluorogenic gel; polymer gel dosimetry; radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization; tertiary-butyl acrylate gel; proton beam imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Warman, J.M.; de Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.H.; Denkova, A.G.; Yao, T. A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields. Polymers 2018, 10, 685.

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